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Part Two

[Part One]

 

THE RUTHVENS OF GOWRIE.
INTRODUCTION.
page 152


Throckmorton, the English ambassador, mentions that at this time Ruthven was empolyed by the confederate lords in another commission, because 'he began to show favour to the Queen, and to give her intelligence.' This leaning towards Mary, however, could not have been of long continuance, for he fought on the side of the Regent Moray at the battle of Langside, which ruined the Queen's cause, and he prevented a junction between the retainers of Huntly and the clansmen of Argyll and Arran, and compelled these noblemen to disband their forces. He was rewarded for his services by his appointment for life, in 1571, to the office of Treasurer. He was also appointed Lieutenant of the Borders, in room of the Earl of Angus, and towards the close of the same year he was nominated one of the Extraordinary Lords of Session. But a bitter quarrel now broke out between him and his former friend the Regent Morton, who had taken the part of Lord Oliphant in a deadly feud between that nobleman and the Ruthvens; and in the following year Lord Ruthven was one of the leaders of the party who brought Morton to the scaffold. Titles and estates were liberally conferred on the successful plotters. Lord Maxwell obtained the earldom of the fallen Regent, and Lord Ruthven, as we have mentioned, was created Earl of Gowrie. But the new favourite, Arran, a person of most infamous character, soon made himself so obnoxious that a conspiracy was formed to expel him from the royal councils. In the month of August, 1582, the young King, who had been enjoying his favourite pastime of the chase in Athol, was invited on his homeward journey to Edinburgh to visit the Earl of Gowrie at Ruthven Castle, near Perth. He readily accepted the invitation, but on his arrival found himself a prisoner in the hands of the associated lords, who compelled him to dismiss his minions, and to adopt measures favourable to the Protestant cause. The fate of Rizzio was impending over Arran, when Gowrie interposed and saved his life. James remained for about ten months in the hands of the lords, but in the month of May, 1583, he effected his escape through the assistance of Colonel William Stewart, a brother of Arran, and took refuge in the castle of St. Andrews. The Protestant lords were commanded to retire to their own estates, and to remain there till the King should call them. Gowrie, however, having obtained permission from James, repaired privately to St. Andrews, and, falling on his knees before him, professed his sorrow for his share in the raid and implored forgiveness, which the King readily granted. The Earl, however, retained his self-respect while expressing his penitence. Though there was 'a fault in the form,' he argued that the deed itself was not evil, 'in respect of the great danger that both religion and the commonwealth did stand into at that time.' James, overjoyed at regaining his freedom, declared, in the presence of the lords of both parties and of an assemblage of the neighbouring gentry, the chief magistrates of the adjacent towns, and the ministers and the heads of colleges, that he would not impute the seizure of his person to any one as a crime, and that he would henceforth govern all his subjects with strict impartiality and justice. As a proof of his sincerity, he paid a special visit to Ruthven Castle, 'to let the country see that he was entirely reconciled with the Earl of Gowrie.' The Earl entertained his Majesty with great splendour. After dinner he fell on his knees publicly before him, and entreated pardon for the indignity which had been put upon him at his last visit to that 'unhappy house,' assuring the King that the detention of his person was unpremeditated, and had fallen out rather by accident than by deliberate intention. James professed the greatest kindness for the Earl, told him he well knew how blindly he had been involved in the conspiracy by the practices of other persons, and promised never to impute to him his accidental fault. Arran was still a prisoner in the hands of Gowrie, but the King begged so earnestly that his old favourite should be permitted to come and see him 'but once' and then return to his place of detention, that the lords at length consented. As might have been foreseen, the interview was followed by Arran's restoration to the Court and to his former place in the Council. The obnoxious favourite speedily regained his ascendancy over the King, and a proclamation was issued repudiating all the Acts of State and royal promises respecting the pardon granted to the lords who had been engaged in the Raid of Ruthven. That enterprise was declared to be treason, and the royal clemency was to be extended to those who had taken part in it only upon their acknowledging their offence and suing for pardon within a limited time, and submitting to temporary banishment, money payment, or such other punishment as the King, or rather as Arran, might think fit.
 
THE RUTHVENS OF GOWRIE.
INTRODUCTION.
page 157


On the 13th of April Colonel Stewart was sent to Dundee by sea with a hundred men, bearing a royal warrant, written by the hand of Arran himself, to arrest Gowrie and bring him to Edinburgh. Gowrie was at the harbour when the vessel which bore Stewart arrived. As soon as he saw the brother of his deadly foe step forth upon the shore he retired hastily to his lodgings, which were in the house of one of the citizens, and summoning his servants, barricaded the doors, and set Stewart at defiance. He made good his defence for several hours, but was at length compelled to surrender, and was conveyed a prisoner to Edinburgh. About the end of April he was removed to Stirling to take his trial, or rather to be put to death, for his fate was already determined. But as the Earl had been captured before Angus, Mar, and Glamis had taken up arms, it was difficult for his enemies to prove that he had been a party to the conspiracy. Arran, therefore, devised a scheme every way worthy of him to entrap the Earl into a confession. Accompanied by two of his brothers, and also by the Earl of Montrose, Sir John Maitland of Lethington, and Sir Robert Melville, Arran waited upon Gowrie, in Edinburgh, under the guise of a friend deeply concerned for his welfare. They informed him that the King was highly incensed against him for the part he had taken in the expulsion of the Duke of Lennox, and recommended him to make a full confession of all that he knew of a design against his Majesty's person, and to offer to reveal the particulars if admitted to an interview. In this way he might vindicate his innocence and explain the whole affair to the King. Gowrie refused to follow this 'perilous' advice. They came to him again and again, and urged him to adopt this course. 'Nay,' said Gowrie, 'that shall I never do, for so I should promise the thing which I could not discharge myself of. I should confess an untruth, and put myself in a far worse case than I am in. I will rather trust in the simplicity of mine honest cause and upright meaning, and take my hazard as it shall please God to dispone upon me.' Arran and his accomplices continued still to reason with him as to the propriety and safety of  the course which they recommended. 'That policie is very perilous,' said Gowrie, 'for I know myself so clear of all crimes against his Highness, I should by that means make mine own dittay [indictment], and, not being sure of my life, nor how the King will accept mine excuse, incur the danger of forfeiture for confessing treason to the tynsell (loss) of my life and the defamation and utter ruin of my house.' His treacherous counsellors assured him that his life was safe if he followed their counsel, but his death was determined on if he did not confess that he had a foreknowledge of the conspiracy of the Protestant lords. Gowrie still hesitated unless he had an assured promise of his life. They alleged that it stood not with his Majesty's honour to capitulate with his subject by writing. The Earl, however, still held out. They came again, and 'swore upon their honours and faith that the King sware to them that he would grant him his life if he would disclose those things whereof he should be asked.' 'I will willingly pledge my honour,' Arran declared, 'that your life shall be in no danger if you will do so.' 'I did yield upon this promise,' said Gowrie, 'and did write those things whereof I am accused.' But instead of receiving the answer he had been led to expect, he was immediately placed upon trial. He pleaded, among other things, the solemn promise that had been made to him of his life. 'You must remember,' he said, looking to Arran, who was one of the jury, and his coadjutors, 'how I at first refused, and how you sware to me upon your honour that the King would grant me my life if I made my confession.' To this pointed appeal no answer was returned; but the Lord Advocate interposed and said that the lords had no power to make such a promise. The Earl then appealed to Arran and his associates whether his statement was not true, but they denied upon oath that any such promise had been made. Gowrie made a final appeal to Arran as he was about to accompany the other jurymen to the inner chamber to deliberate, and asked him to remember the good deed he did to him last year in his house. The heartless villain replied, that it was not lawful, 'for, my lord, you are accused of treason, and I was no traitor; besides, my life was safe.' Gowrie, who now perceived the snare that had been laid for him, convinced that he had no mercy to expect, smiled, and with great composure called for a cup of wine and drank to his friends around him. He then desired one of them to commend him to his wife, and to conceal his death from her, and put her in good hope of his life till she was stronger in body, for she was even at this instant weakened through the delivery of his child. The jury soon returned into court with a verdict of guilty, which he heard without changing his countenance; and being about to address the court, he was interrupted by the judge, who informed him that the King had sent down the warrant for his execution. 'Well, my lords,' he remarked, 'since it is the King's contentment that I lose my life, I am as willing to part with it as I was before to spend it in his service; and the noblemen who have been upon my jury will know the matter better hereafter. And yet in condemning me to die, they have hazarded their own souls, for I had their promise. God grant that my blood be not upon the King's head. My Lord Judge, since there are but small oversights whereupon I am condemned, I pray you not to make the matter so heinous as to punish it by the penalty of forfeitrie. My sons are in my lands many years since, and have all their rights confirmed by the King, and failing the eldest, the second is to succeed, A formal deed had been prepared some years before and completed, authorising a surrender to the King of the land and baronies of Ruthven anal Dirleton, in order that a new settlement of them might be made in favour of the eldest son of the Earl and his heirs, reserving only a life interest to himself and his wife.* and is assigned to all my causes.' He was informed by the judge that this request could not be granted; for the penalty of treason, of which he had been found guilty, necessarily included that of forfeiture, and he proceeded to pronounce the usual sentence. 'I pray God,' said the Earl, 'that my blood may satiate and extinguish the bloody rage and ire of the courtiers and bring this country to quietness.' He bade farewell to those around him, and then retired for a short space with a minister to a chamber to his private prayers. He was then conveyed to the scaffold in the marketplace of the town, from which he briefly addressed the people who had assembled to witness the scene. 'Brethren,' he said, 'this spectacle is more common than pleasant to you. I am to die this night, for so it is the King's pleasure; but I shall never ask mercy for anything that I ever thought against him; and the Lord is witness that I was more careful of his welfare than I was of my own and my wife and children.' Then, after praying, he said, 'I have forgotten something which I purposed to speak.' It was broached that he had spoken against many noblemen, and had been their accuser. He indignantly repudiated this charge as utterly false. He accused none, he said; he knew of none but such as had taken the fault upon  themselves. He then, with great composure, loosed his buttons, tied the handkerchief over his eyes with his own hands, then with a smile kneeled down and laid his neck upon the block, and his head was severed from his body by a single blow.
 
THE RUTHVENS OF GOWRIE.
INTRODUCTION.
page 159


The treatment which Arran and his associates, with at least the tacit permission of the King, gave to the widowed Countess of Gowrie and her children, filled up the measure of their cruelty. When the Earl was conveyed from Dundee to Edinburgh, his wife, a Stewart of Methven, set out immediately after his departure, with the intention of interceding with the King on his behalf, but she was so unwell as to be obliged to travel by short stages, and at the slowest pace. Her purpose became known, and a royal mandate was issued forbidding her to come within twenty miles of the King's person. After her husband's execution, Davison says, she was treated 'with the greatest inhumanity that may be,' and Hume of Godscroft declares that she was 'basely and beastly used.' Having come to Edinburgh to entreat for herself and her children while the Parliament was sitting, and 'having fallen down upon her knees before the King, she was trodden under foot and left lying in a swoon.' Even the mediation of Queen Elizabeth in behalf of the Countess and her children was unavailing. She addressed a letter to James reminding him that the deceased Earl was one of the chief instruments in putting the crown upon his head, and that in defence of his Majesty's rights against the murderers of his father, that of his grandfather Lennox and those of his uncle, Regent Moray, Gowrie had lost many relatives and members of his clan, and had subjected his own life and estate to the greatest hazard. She earnestly solicited James's compassion towards the Earl's 'poor wife and thirteen fatherless children.' She reminded him of their innocency and their youth. She begged that by their restoration to their father's lands some monument of that ancient house might abide to posterity, and their names be not rooted out from the face of the earth, through the private craft and malice of adversaries whose eyes could not be satiated otherwise than by the Earl's death. Finally, Elizabeth appealed to James on the score of natural affection to his own, the Gowries, as she states, being 'tied so near by kindred and consanguinity' to himself. Bannatyne, Miscellany, pp. 1—106; Papers relating to William, First Earl of Gowrie, &c., pp. 53, 54.* No attention was paid, however, to these appeals. It need create no surprise that such cruel treatment engendered revengeful feelings in the minds of Gowrie's sons.
 
THE CRICHTONS OF FRENDRAUGHT.
INTRODUCTION.
page 175


THE Crichtons are an ancient Scottish family, but their origin is unknown. They derived their surname from the barony of Crichton, in the county of Edinburgh. A Thurstanus de Crichton is one of the witnesses to the charter founding the Abbey of Holyrood, in the days of David I., and a Thomas de Crichton was one of the barons who swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296. The family, however, appear to have remained in the rank of minor barons, taking no prominent part in public affairs till near the middle of the fifteenth century, when they suddenly rose to almost supreme power in the State through the great abilities and political address of Sir William Crichton, the famous Chancellor of Scotland during the minority of James II. This able and accomplished but unscrupulous statesman held in succession the offices of Chamberlain to the King, Master of the Household, and Governor of Edinburgh Castle before he became Chancellor and Lord Crichton. His rivalry with Sir Alexander Livingstone, the King's Governor, his feuds with the great house of Donglas, and the prominent part which he took in the hasty execution of Earl William and his brother in 1440, are familiar to all the readers of Scottish history. In spite of various reverses of fortune, the Chancellor retained the confidence and favour of his sovereign until his death in 1454, shortly before the complete success of his policy in the triumph of the King over the Earl of Douglas and the total ruin of the potent family of the 'Black Douglascs.' The cousin of the Chancellor was High Admiral of Scotland, and no doubt through his influence was created Earl of Caithness in 1452. Lord Crichton's grandson was the son-in-law of James II., and is said to have seduced the sister of James III. in revenge for that monarch having dishonoured his bed. He took part in the unsuccessful rebellion of the Duke of Albany against his brother King James, and was in consequence attainted for treason, and stripped of his titles and estates. His magnificent castle of Crichton, on the banks of the north Tyne, which Sir Walter Scott describes in most picturesque terms in his poem of 'Marmion,' was conferred upon Ramsay of Balmain, and afterwards became the seat of the Hepburns. On the forfeiture of the notorious Earl of Bothwell, Crichton fell to the Crown, and was granted to Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, who was a thorn in the side of his kinsman, King James VI. It has since passed through the hands of several proprietors.
 
THE MACKENZIES OF SEAFORTH.
INTRODUCTION.
page 198


On the death of Lord Seaforth his titles became extinct. The chiefship of the clan passed to Mackenzie of Allengrange, but the remaining estates of the family, with all their burdens and responsibilities, devolved upon Lord Seaforth's eldest daughter, MARY ELIZABETH FREDERICA MACKENZIE, born in 1783, widow of Vice-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood. She took for her second husband (21st May, 1817) the Hon. James Alexander Stewart of Glasserton, a cadet of the Galloway family. Sir Walter Scott, who held Lady Hood in high esteem, expressed his sympathy for her on the loss of her husband, father, and brothers in the well-known lines—
 
THE MACKENZIES OF CROMARTIE.
INTRODUCTION.
page 199


The Hon. J. A. Stewart Mackenzie—who was held in great esteem by the clan, and, indeed, by the whole county—represented Rossshire in Parliament for several years, and was afterwards successively Governor of Ceylon and Lord High Commissioner to the Ionian Islands. The accomplished Lady Ashburton was his sister. He died on the 24th of September, 1843. His widow, the chieftainess, survived till the 28th of November, 1862. Of their son and successor there is nothing creditable to be recorded. The remnant of the Seaforth estate is now in the possession of his only son, an officer in the army.
 
THE HAMILTONS.
INTRODUCTION.
page 210


The heads of the Hamilton family continued faithful in their adherence to the heir of Robert Bruce and the Stewarts. The immediate successors of Walter fought at the disastrous battles of Halidon Hill and Durham, and took some part, though by no means a very prominent one, in the affairs of the kingdom and court. The member of the family to whom their greatness is mainly owing was SIR JAMES HAMILTON, the fifth knight and first baron, who was raised to the peerage in 1445 under the title of Lord Hamilton of Cadzow (pronounced Cadyow). He was noted both for his energy and his sagacity, which gave great weight to his opinion in the national council and among his brother barons. The vicinity of his estates to the principal seat of the Douglases, as well as kinsmanship with that family, probably led him at first to enrol himself in the ranks of their followers. He accompanied the Earl of Douglas in his celebrated visit to Rome in 1450; and, in the following year, went with him on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Thomas à Becket at Canterbury. As might have been expected, Hamilton joined the confederacy which Douglas formed with the Earls of Crawford and Ross against the Crown, and narrowly escaped the fate of the formidable chief of the league when he was assassinated by the King (James II.) in Stirling Castle. When Sir James Douglas, the successor of the murdered baron and the last of the old stock, took the field against his sovereign at the head of forty thousand men, Lord Hamilton was one of his most powerful and trusted supporters. The insurgents encamped on the south bank of the Carron, about three miles from the Torwood, so famous in the history of Sir William Wallace. James, who was well aware of his danger, advanced from Stirling to meet this formidable array with an army considerably inferior in numbers, but with 'the King's name as a tower of strength, which they upon the adverse faction lacked.' A battle seemed imminent, which should decide whether the house of Stewart or of Douglas was henceforth to reign in Scotland. But at this critical juncture, art did more than arms for the royal cause. Acting under the advice of the patriotic and sagacious Bishop Kennedy, James made overtures to Lord Hamilton and other allies of the Earl of Douglas, representing the danger which threatened not only the independence of the Crown, but the welfare of the country and their own interests, from the ambition and overgrown power of the Douglas family, and making liberal promises if, in this hour of extremity, they would abandon the cause of the insurgent baron. These representations produced a deep impression on the mind of Lord Hamilton, and taking advantage of the contemptuous reply made by the Earl to his remonstrances against the proposal to postpone till next day an attack on the royal army— 'If you are afraid or tired, you may depart when you please'—the politic noble took Douglas at his word, and that very night passed over to the King with all his retainers. The other insurgent leaders, who had a high opinion of Lord Hamilton's prudence and sagacity, so generally followed his example that, before morning, the rebel camp was almost deserted. The complete overthrow of the formidable house of Douglas speedily followed: their vast estates were distributed among the supporters of the royal cause; and Lord Hamilton, whose timely desertion of the 'Black Douglases' had mainly contributed to their destruction, was rewarded with a large share of their forfeited possessions. He became thenceforth one of the most trusted councillors of his grateful sovereign, was frequently employed by him on important embassies to England, and, in 1474, he obtained the hand of the Princess Mary, the King's sister, through whom his descendants became next heirs to the crown after the Stewarts. Besides his legitimate offspring, Lord Hamilton left several natural sons, one of whom, SIR JAMES HAMILTON, of Kincavel, became the father of Patrick Hamilton, the protomartyr of the Scottish Protestant Church, and was himself killed in the celebrated fight between the Douglases and the Hamiltons in the High Street of Edinburgh, in 1520.
 
THE HAMILTONS.
INTRODUCTION.
page 213


'The conduct of the Hamiltons,' says Mr. Froude, 'for the ten past years, had been uniformly base. They had favoured the Reformation while there was a hope of marrying the heir of their house to Elizabeth. When this hope failed, they tried to secure Mary Stewart for him; and when she declined the honour, they thought of carrying her off by force. Hamilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews (illegitimate brother of the Duke of Chatelherault), had been a party to the murder of Darnley. He had divorced Bothwell and helped the Queen to marry him, in the hope that she would ruin herself. When she was at Lochleven, the House of Hamilton would have voted for her death if their title to the crown had been recognised. Had they won at Langside, she was to have repaid their services by marrying the Abbot of Arbroath. A steady indifference to every interest but their own, a disregard of every obligation of justice or honour, if they could secure the crown of Scotland to their lineage, had given a consistency to the conduct of the Hamiltons beyond what was to be found in any other Scottish family. No scruples of religion had disturbed them, no loyalty to their sovereign, no care or thought for the public interests of their country. Through good and evil, through truth and lies, through intrigues and bloodshed, they worked their way to the one object of a base ambition.'
 
THE HAMILTONS.
INTRODUCTION.
page 214


As James, the third Earl of Arran, who succeeded his father in 1575, had become insane, the real head of the family at this critical period was LORD JOHN HAMILTON, commendator of the rich Abbey of Arbroath, who was a candidate for the hand of Queen Mary, and was deep in the councils of the Queen's party during the civil war between them and the 'King's men,' and an accomplice in all their worst deeds. Condign punishment at length overtook him and the other members of the family. They were attainted and driven into exile in 1579 by the Earl of Morton, and their estates were confiscated and conferred, along with the title of Earl of Arran, on the infamous Captain James Stewart ('A notorious scoundrel,' says Froude), who was a descendant in the female line of the first Earl. The honours and estates of the family were, however, restored in 1585, and Lord John became a great favourite of King James, by whom he was created MARQUIS OF HAMILTON in 1599. Like his predecessors, he left a numerous progeny, illegitimate as well as legitimate. His son JAMES HAMILTON, the second Marquis of Hamilton and Earl of Cambridge in the English peerage, died at Whitehall in his thirty-sixth year, a few days before King James, and was popularly believed to have been poisoned by the Duke of Buckingham.

THE HAMILTON-DOUGLASES.
INTRODUCTION.
page 219


When the Revolution took place, Arran adhered to the cause of the exiled monarch, while his father, the Duke, according to a course of policy common at that period, supported the claims of King William, so that whatever might be the result, the family titles and estates were safe. Arran was deeply implicated in Montgomery's plot for the restoration of the Stewart family, and was twice confined to the Tower on suspicion of treason. On regaining his liberty, he returned to Scotland and spent several years there in retirement. The death of his father, in 1694, brought him no accession of title or estate, as both were possessed by his mother, who survived till 1717. But, in 1698, the Duchess resigned the family dignities into the hands of King William, who immediately conferred them on her son, to the no small surprise and disappointment of the friends of the Government, as the disaffection of Arran was notorious. During the excitement connected with the failure of the Darien expedition, the Duke acquired great popularity by heading the opposition to the ministry, and strenuously supporting the claims of the African Company. On the accession of Queen Anne, he protested against the legality of the meeting of the Convention Parliament, affirming that it ought to have been dissolved on the death of the King, and withdrew from the House, followed by seventy-nine of the members, a step which was warmly resented by the Queen. His Grace took an active part in the discussions respecting the union of the two kingdoms, and was regarded as the leader of the opposition to that measure. But he suddenly abandoned his party at a critical moment—through treachery, it was alleged, but more probably through fickleness and timidity—and, by his desertion, completely paralysed their movements. He continued to keep up a correspondence with the exiled monarch; but his attachment to James was not sufficiently strong to induce him to run much risk for his sake, for, on learning that a descent was about to be made on Scotland, the Duke retired to his estates in Staffordshire, and on the appearance of the French fleet on the coast, he was taken into custody and carried up to London. On the overthrow of the Whig ministry, in 1710, various offices and honours were bestowed upon the cautious and time-serving nobleman, and he was, in the following year, created a British peer by the titles of Duke of Brandon and Baron Dutton. But a considerable number of the members of the Upper House offered violent resistance to this step; and after a long and keen debate, it was decided that no Scottish peer who was created a British peer since the Union had a right to a seat in the House of Lords. This resolution, though quite illegal, was not rescinded till 1782, when Douglas, eighth Duke of Hamilton, was permitted to take his seat in the House of Lords as Duke of Brandon. In 1712 Duke James was appointed Master-General of the Ordnance, and received the Order of the Garter in addition to that of the Thistle, which had been conferred on him by King James. His Grace was shortly after nominated Ambassador Extraordinary to France, but before he could set out for the French Court, he lost his life in a duel (November, 1712) with Lord Mohun, an odious villain already stained with several murders.
 
THE CAMPBELLS OF ARGYLL.
INTRODUCTION.
page 232


For several successive generations, though nothing worthy of special notice occurred, the chiefs of the Campbell clan continued steadily to extend their territorial possessions and to augment their power. Kilmun—the last resting-place of the family—the barony of Milport, and extensive estates in Cowal, Knapdale, and Arran fell into their hands in the early part of the fourteenth century. The first of the family who received the title of Argyll was SIR DUNCAN, the great-grandson of Sir Colin and nephew of Annabella Drummond, the Queen of Robert III. He was accounted one of the wealthiest barons in Scotland, and in 1424 was one of the hostages for the payment of the expense of the maintenance of James I. during his long imprisonment in England. At this date Sir Duncan's annual revenue was set down as 1,500 merks—a larger income than that of any of the other hostages, except Lord Douglas of Dalkeith, whose estates were valued at the same amount. He was made a Lord of Parliament in 1445, under the title of LORD CAMPBELL. He was the founder of the collegiate church of Kilmun, where he was buried in 1453. His first wife was Marjory or Mariotta Stewart, daughter of Robert, Duke of Albany, brother of King Robert III., and Regent of the kingdom during the imprisonment of his nephew, James I., in England. One of the charters which Duncan, Lord Campbell, received from his father-in-law was witnessed, amongst others, by Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, the eldest son of the renowned Hotspur, who was at that time a refugee at the Scottish court.* This was the second intermarriage of the House of Argyll with the royal family of Scotland. Lord Campbell's youngest son by this royal lady is the ancestor of the Campbells of Breadalbane.
 
THE CAMPBELLS OF ARGYLL.
INTRODUCTION.
page 233


COLIN, the grandson of Lord Campbell, was created EARL OF ARGYLL by James II., in 1457. By his marriage to the eldest of the three daughters and co-heiresses of John, Lord Lorne (all three married Campbells), the young Earl put an end to the feuds which for upwards of two hundred and fifty years had raged between the families of Lochaw and Lorne, and obtained the undisputed chieftainship of the county of Argyll. He acquired, in consequence of this connection, the lordship and title of Lorne from Walter Stewart, Lord Lorne and Invermeath, heir male of that lordship, in exchange for the estates of Kildoning, Baldoning, and other lands in the shires of Perth, Fife, Kinross, and Aberdeen. The galley—the ancient badge of the family of Lorne— was, in consequence of this acquisition, assumed into the Earl's hereditary coat-of-arms. 'The acquisition of Lorne,' says Dr. Fraser, 'was a favourable arrangement for the family of Argyll, as it lay adjacent to their other lands, while the Lowland possessions surrendered as an equivalent were scattered over various counties and far distant from their more important territories.' The Earl acquired extensive estates besides in Perthshire and Fifeshire, and the lordship of Campbell, with its celebrated castle near Dollar, where John Knox visited Archibald, fourth Earl of Argyll, and preached to him and his relatives. It continued to be a frequent residence of the family until 1644, when it was burned by the Macleans in the army of the Marquis of Montrose. At a later period he obtained a large share of the forfeited possessions of the Lord of the Isles. The most important offices at Court and in the kingdom were conferred upon him. He was frequently sent as ambassador to the English Court, and also to France. He was Master of the Royal Household, Grand Justiciary of Scotland, and eventually became Lord High Chancellor—an office which he held for a long period. This dignity, along with the lands of 'Mekell and Lettel Pincartoun,' in the barony of Dunbar, was probably bestowed upon the Earl in 1483, as a reward for his loyal adherence to James III. at the time of the conspiracy of Archibald Bell-the-Cat and other nobles, which led to the murder of the royal favourites at Lauder, in 1482. Argyll was in England at the time of the defeat and death of that unfortunate monarch at Sauchieburn, in 1488. On his return to Scotland he was at once reappointed Chancellor by James IV., who also conferred upon him the lands of Roseneath, Dumbartonshire (January 9th, 1489) which are still in the possession of the family. The mansion is one of the principal seats of the Duke of Argyll. This powerful and prosperous nobleman died in 1493. The Lords of the Isles, the mightiest of all the ancient Highland chieftains, had long possessed unquestioned supremacy in the Hebrides and throughout the mountain country of Argyllshire and Invernessshire. But from this period their power began to wane before the rising influence of the Campbells. As late as the fifteenth century these haughty and turbulent island chieftains even disputed the authority of the kings of Scotland; but their successive rebellions were punished by successive forfeitures both of their ancient dignities and their possessions, and now that the house of Argyll had become sufficiently powerful to enforce the decrees of the King and Parliament, and had a strong interest in carrying these decrees into effect, the extensive territories which for many generations had belonged to the Lordship of the Isles were finally wrested from their ancient possessors and conferred upon the loyal clans, and especially upon the Campbells, who could now meet in the field the combined forces of all the other Western septs.

THE CAMPBELLS OF ARGYLL.
INTRODUCTION.
page 236


ARCHIBALD, fifth Earl of Argyll, though a zealous Protestant, supported at first the Government of the Queen-Regent; but on her perfidious violation of the Treaty of Perth, which he helped to negotiate, he joined the Lords of the Congregation, became the faithful friend and champion of John Knox, and, along with Lord James Stewart—the one, as Douglas remarks, the most powerful, the other the most popular, leader of the Protestant party—aided in the expulsion of the French troops from the country, and in all the measures which led to the overthrow of the Romish system and the establishment of the Reformed faith in Scotland. The Earl's name appears third on the list of the nobility who subscribed the First Book of Discipline, and he was appointed by the Lords of the Congregation, along with the Earls of Glencairn and Arran, to destroy the 'remaining monuments of idolatry in the West.' On the return of Queen Mary from France in 1561, Argyll was immediately appointed a Privy Councillor, and appears to have stood high in the royal favour. In 1565, however, the English ambassador reports that 'The Queen hateth my Lord of Argyll.' He was strongly opposed to her marriage with Darnley, and united with the Earls of Moray and Glencairn and the Duke of Chatelherault, in an attempt to prevent this ill-fated match by force of arms. When the other Protestant lords were compelled to take refuge in England, Argyll retired to his own country. It was 'a far cry to Lochaw,' and he well knew that his enemies durst not attempt to follow him into the fastnesses of Argyllshire.
 
THE CAMPBELLS OF ARGYLL.
INTRODUCTION.
page 238


COLIN, sixth Earl of Argyll, soon after his accession to the earldom had a quarrel with Morton, arising out of his claim of jurisdiction as hereditary Justice-General of Scotland, and his alienation from the Regent was confirmed by his demanding the restitution of the valuable crown jewels which the Earl had obtained either from his sister-in-law, or more probably through his second wife, who was the widow of the Regent Moray. Athole and Argyll, who had quarrelled about their jurisdiction, and were on the eve of settling the matter by trial of battle, learning that the Regent intended to prosecute them for treason, united in a confederacy against him, and resolved to effect his overthrow. On the 4th of March, 1578, Argyll proceeded to Stirling, and complained loudly to the King of the oppressive and tyrannical proceedings of the Regent, and recommended James to take the government into his own hands, which was accordingly done, and Argyll was placed at the head of the Council of Twelve, appointed to assist the King, who was only twelve years of age, in the management of public affairs. The crafty ex-Regent, however, overreached his opponents, and in the course of a few weeks contrived to obtain possession of the King's person, and to regain his former supremacy. Argyll and Athole mustered their clansmen, and at the head of 7,000 men marched towards Stirling to rescue the King, but by the mediation of Bowes, the English ambassador, a compromise was effected between the hostile factions. Argyll and Lindsay agreed to enter the new council, of which Morton was the head, and on the 10th of August following, the former, on the death of Athole, was appointed Lord High Chancellor of the kingdom. But though the Earl was apparently reconciled to Morton, he cooperated with Esme Stewart, afterwards Duke of Lennox, the royal favourite, and James Stewart, who was subsequently created Earl of Arran, in undermining the influence of the ex-Regent, and was one of the jury at his trial, in June, 1581. Afterwards, however, having discovered the ulterior designs of the French faction against the Protestant faith and the independence of the kingdom, he confessed to the Ministers that he had been mistaken or misled, and joined in the bond against Lennox which led to the Raid of Ruthven and the restoration of the Protestant party to power. But, strange to say, he was soon afterwards found in the ranks of the nobles who assisted James to escape from the hands of Gowrie, Mar, and Angus, the leaders of the English faction (June, 1583). His career was now, however, near an end. He died after a long illness, in October of the following year.
 
THE CAMPBELLS OF BREADALBANE.
INTRODUCTION.
page 263


THE Campbells of Breadalbane are the most powerful branch of the house of Argyll; indeed, in the extent and value of their estates they surpass the parent stock. They are descended from Sir Colin Campbell, third son of Duncan, first Lord Campbell of Lochaw, by Marjory Stewart, daughter of Robert, Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland. In the 'Black Book of Taymouth,' printed by the Bannatyne Club, from an old manuscript preserved m Taymouth Castle, it is stated that 'Duncan Campbell, commonly called Duncan in Aa, Knight of Lochaw (lineallie descendit of a valiant man surnamit Campbell quha cam to Scotland in King Malcolm Kandmore his time, about the year of God 1067, of quhom came the house of Lochaw) flourished in King David Bruce his dayes. The foresaid Duncan begat twa sons, the elder callit Archibald, the other namit Colin, wha was first laird of Glenurchay.' That estate was bestowed on him by his father. It was the original seat of the M'Gregors, who were settled there as early as the reign of Malcolm Canmore. It was gradually wrested from them by the Campbells in pursuance of the hereditary policy of their family, and in the reign of David II. they managed to procure a legal title to the lands of Glenorchy, but the M'Gregors continued for a long time to retain possession of their ancient inheritance by the strong hand. SIR COLIN CAMPBELL, the founder of the Glenorchy or Breadalbane branch of the clan, Douglas says, 'was a man of high renown for military prowess and for the virtues of social and domestic life. He was a stream of many tides against the foes of the people, but like the gale that moves the heath to those who sought his aid.' He was born about A.D. 1400, and, says the 'Black Book,' 'throch his valiant actis and manheid maid knicht in the Isle of Rhodes, quhilk standeth in the Carpathian Sea near to Curia and countrie of Asia the Less, and he was three sundrie tymes in Rome.' After the murder of James I., in 1437, Sir Colin took prompt and active measures to bring the assassins to justice, and succeeded in capturing two of them, named Chalmers and Colquhoun. For this service James II. afterwards conferred upon him the barony of Lawers. In 1440 Sir Colin erected the Castle of Kilchurn (properly Coalchuirn) on a rocky promontory at the east end of Loch Awe, under the shadow of the majestic Ben Cruachan, at no great distance from the Pass of Brander, where the M'Dougalls of Lorne were defeated by Robert Bruce. This 'child of loud-throated war,' as the castle is termed by Wordsworth, is now a picturesque ruin, which has been repeatedly sketched by eminent painters. 'From the top of the hill,' says Miss Wordsworth in her Journal, 'a most impressive scene opened upon our view—a ruined castle on an island (for an island the flood had made it) at some distance from the shore, backed by a cove of the mountain Cruachan, down which carne a foaming stream. The castle occupied every foot of the island that was visible, thus appearing to rise out of the water. Mists rested upon the mountain-side, with spots of sunshine; there was a wild desolation in the low grounds, a solemn grandeur in the mountains, and the castle was wild yet stately—not dismantled of turrets nor the walls broken down, though obviously a ruin.'—See 'Address to Kilchurn Castle, upon Loch Awe,' Wordsworth's Poetical Works, pp. 117—125.*
 
THE LESLIES.
INTRODUCTION.
page 295


There is a curious chapter in the memoirs of these old Leslies which has an important bearing on the ancient history of Scotland. WALTER, fourth son of Sir Andrew Leslie of Leslie, by his wife, one of the co-heiresses of the powerful family of Abernethy, served with great distinction in the Imperial army under the Emperors Louis IV. and Charles IV. (1346—1378) against the Saracens, and was so remarkable for his humanity, as well as his bravery and military skill, that he was styled the 'Generous Knight.' His brilliant exploits against Edward III. of England were rewarded with a liberal grant from Charles V. by a patent dated 1372. On his return to Scotland the fame of his valour and courtesy gained him the heart and hand of Euphemia, eldest daughter and heiress of the Earl of Ross, one of the most powerful magnates in the kingdom, and who had repeatedly aspired to independent sovereignty. Walter Leslie assumed the title of Earl of Ross in right of his wife, and their only son, Alexander, after his death became eighth Earl. He married Isabel Stewart, daughter of Robert, Duke of Albany, the ambitious Regent of Scotland during the long captivity in England of his nephew, James I. Their only child, Euphemia, on the death of her father in 1411, succeeded to his titles and estates, and being under age and small of stature and deformed, was induced by her unscrupulous grandfather, the Regent, to become a nun, and to resign her right to the earldom of Ross in favour of his son, John Stewart, Earl of Buchan. But Donald, Lord of the Isles, who had married the aunt of the young Countess, asserted his claim to the earldom in right of his wife, and resolved to vindicate his pretensions by force of arms. At the head of an army of 10,000 men he marched through Moray into the Garioch, intending to attack the city of Aberdeen. He was encountered at Harlaw, on the Urie, by Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, at the head of the chivalry of Aberdeenshire, Angus and Mearns, together with the Provost and a troop of the stoutest burgesses of the city of Aberdeen, numbering altogether, however, only one to ten of the hostile force. The battle was long  and obstinately contested, and was indecisive in its immediate results, but six sons of Sir Andrew Leslie were left among the slain, along with the Provost of Aberdeen, the Sheriff of Angus, the Constable of Dundee, and the principal gentry of the district. It was justly said that—
 
THE LESLIES OF ROTHES.
INTRODUCTION.
page 297


GEORGE LESLIE, the grandson of this powerful baron, was the first Earl of Rothes, and through his father and mother (Christian Seton) was descended from both the royal families of Bruce and Stewart. He was three times married. After he had lived nearly twenty years in wedlock with his second wife, a daughter of Lord Halyburton of Dirleton, he grew tired of her, and raised an action before the Consistory Court of St. Andrews, for the dissolution of the marriage on the convenient and common plea at that time, that he and his wife were related within the forbidden degrees of kindred, and that consequently their marriage was null and void from the first. A divorce could be obtained on this ground at that period with the utmost facility, and was a matter of everyday occurrence. But a formidable difficulty presented itself in regard to the position of the children born under the marriage, who would be declared illegitimate if it should be dissolved. As the Earl's eldest son, Andrew, had married into the powerful family of St. Clair, it was not to be expected that they would patiently acquiesce in a decision which deprived him and his children of their rights. It was ultimately decided by the arbiter to whom the case was referred by mutual consent, that the Earl should obtain a divorce, but that the legitimacy of his offspring should be preserved by his judicial deposition that he did not know of the relationship between him and his wife, till after the birth of all their children.
 
THE LESLIES OF LEVEN.
INTRODUCTION.
page 303


ALEXANDER LESLIE, Earl of Leven, the distinguished general who commanded the army of the Scottish Covenanters in the Great Civil War, was the son of Captain George Leslie of Balgonie in Fife, by his wife, a daughter of Stewart of Ballechin. Having made choice of the military profession, he obtained at an early age a captain's commission in the regiment of Lord Vere, who was then assisting the Dutch in their memorable contest against Spain, and soon rendered himself conspicuous by his valour and military skill. He afterwards served with great distinction under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, by whom he was promoted to the rank of field-marshal. His successful defence of Stralsund in 1628, against a powerful army of Imperialists, under the celebrated Count Wallenstein, gained him great reputation; and the citizens showed their gratitude to their deliverer by making him a handsome present, and having medals struck in his honour. In 1639, when the Scottish Covenanters were preparing to resist, by force if necessary, the attempts of Charles I. to compel them to submit to the new English Liturgy, General Leslie returned to his native country, along with a number of his brother officers, and was appointed to the chief command of the army which had been raised by the Committee of the Scottish Estates. His plans were sagaciously formed and promptly executed, and before the Covenanting forces marched towards the Borders to meet the hostile army which Charles was bringing against them from England, nearly all the strongholds of the country were in their possession. When their ill-advised sovereign reached the Tweed, he learned to his surprise and dismay that an army of at least twenty thousand men was encamped on Dunse Law in readiness to repel force by force, with the most influential nobles in Scotland as their chief officers, with experienced soldiers for their subalterns, and the whole under the command of a general who had gained in the Continental wars a high reputation for military skill. 'We were feared,' says Baillie, 'that emulation among our nobles might have done harm when they should be met in the field; but such was the wisdom and authority of that old little crooked soldier, that all with ane incredible submission, from the beginning to the end, gave o'er themselves to be guided by him as if he had been great Solyman.'
 
THE LESLIES OF NEWARK.
INTRODUCTION.
page 305


DAVID LESLIE, Lord Newark, another scion of the house of Leslie, was a more skilful general even than Alexander, Lord Leven, in whom the Covenanters put such unbounded trust. He was the fifth son of Sir Patrick Leslie of Pitcairly, Commendator of Lindores by his wife, Jean, daughter of Robert Stewart, Earl of Orkney. At an early age he entered the service of Gustavus Adolphus, and fought the battle of Protestantism in Germany under that famous warrior. Like Alexander Leslie and others of his countrymen who were engaged in military services on the Continent, he returned home when hostilities were impending between the English Court and his countrymen, and was appointed Major-General of the forces which the Committee of Estates sent to the assistance of the English Parliament in January, 1644. He commanded the Scottish cavalry in the left wing, under Cromwell, at the battle of Marston Moor, on the 22nd of July following, and contributed not a little to the decisive victory gained by the Parliamentary army. Meanwhile Montrose had, in six successive victories, completely overthrown and scattered the Covenanting forces in Scotland, and had the whole kingdom entirely at his disposal. In this emergency, David Leslie was recalled with the Scottish cavalry from the siege of Hereford to the assistance of the Estates, and, by a rapid and skilful movement, he surprised and defeated Montrose at Philiphaugh, near Selkirk, 12th September, 1645.

THE MAULES.
INTRODUCTION.
page 323


At this period, the lordship of the ancient family of the Barclays of Brechin should have fallen to Sir Thomas Maule, who was grandson of Jean Barclay, the heiress of their estates. He was only able, however, to obtain possession of a comparatively slender portion of the property, the lordship itself being annexed to the Crown on the forfeiture of Walter Stewart, Earl of Athole, who was executed for his complicity in the conspiracy which led to the assassination of James I., in 1437. The Earl, on the day of his execution, formally acknowledged that he had held the lordship only by courtesy since the death of his wife. Elizabeth Barclay, and that it belonged by right to Sir Thomas Maule. But the policy of the late King, to diminish the power of the great nobles, was carried out by his successor, and like the earldoms of Mar and Strathearn, the greater part of the Barclay estates was appropriated by the sovereign.
 
THE MAULES.
INTRODUCTION.
page 333


On the suppression of the rebellion, Lord Panmure followed the Chevalier to the Continent. He was, of course, attainted of high treason, and his honours and estates were forfeited to the Crown. It is said that the restoration of his estates—rented at £3,456, the largest of the confiscated properties—was twice offered him by the Government if he would return home and take the oath of allegiance to the House of Hanover, but he firmly adhered to the Stewart dynasty. An Act of Parliament, however, was passed to enable the King to make such provision for the Countess of Panmure (a daughter of the Duke of Hamilton) as she would have been entitled to had her husband been dead.
 
THE LAUDERDALE MAlTLANDS.
INTRODUCTION.
page 356


JOHN MAITLAND, younger brother of the Secretary, and Prior of Coldingham, an accomplished lawyer and statesman, who was successively Lord Privy Seal, Secretary of State, Vice-Chancellor, and Lord High Chancellor of Scotland. He was born in 1545, and was carefully trained in the knowledge of the law, both at home and on the Continent. On his return he obtained the Abbey of Kelso in commendam, which he shortly afterwards exchanged for the Priory of Coldingham. On the resignation of his father, in 1567, he was appointed Lord Privy Seal by Regent Moray, and a few months later he was nominated a Lord of Session. Like his brother, he was at first inclined towards the Lords of the Congregation, but after the assassination of the Regent he joined the Queen's party, and was in consequence deprived both of his office and his benefice, and was obliged, like the Secretary, to take refuge in the castle of Edinburgh. On the surrender of that fortress he was placed in confinement, from which he was not released till the fall of Morton in 1581, when he was set at liberty by an order of the Privy Council. His abilities and his character commended him to the attention of the young King, who conferred on him the honour of knighthood, and appointed him to the office of Secretary of State, which had been so long held by his brother. In 1586 he was nominated Vice-Chancellor of the kingdom, and in the following year, on the downfall of the infamous royal favourite, Captain Stewart, sometime Earl of Arran, Maitland was raised to the office of Lord High Chancellor. From the time of his admission to the court down to near the close of his career he was virtually the minister for Scotland, and the King seems to have placed implicit reliance in his judgment and fidelity. It was to his credit that he incurred the bitter enmity both of Stewart, Earl of Arran, and of Francis Stewart, the notorious Earl of Bothwell, who repeatedly sought his life. He accompanied James in his voyage to Norway in 1589 to bring home his bride, and at Copenhagen, where the royal party spent the winter, he became intimately acquainted with Tycho Brahe, the celebrated Danish astronomer, to whom he addressed some complimentary verses. On his return home, in May, 1590, he was created a peer at the coronation of the Queen, by the title cf LORD MAITLAND OF THIRLESTANE. Finding that his retention of two such important offices as Privy Seal and Chancellor had excited the envy of the courtiers, he resigned the former in 1591. His influence with the King was, however, in no degree diminished, and in the following year he persuaded James to pass the important statute by which the jurisdiction and discipline of the Church were finally legalised and confirmed. He shared in the unpopularity, and indeed odium, which the King incurred in consequence of the general suspicion that he was previously aware of Huntly's design to assassinate 'the bonnie Earl of Moray,' and he never regained the position which he had previously held in public esteem. 

THE MAXWELLS.
page 48


The most powerful and celebrated of all the branches of the main stock were the MAXWELLS OF HERRIES, who, as we have seen, became ultimately therepresentatives of the house. The original family of Herries was of Norman origin, and settled in Nottinghamshire. One of themmigrated into Scotland during the reign of David I. (1124—1153), and like other Anglo-Norman barons, obtained grants of land from that monarch and his successors. SIR HERBERT HERRIES, of Terregles, was created a lord in 1489. His eldest son, Andrew, the second Lord Herries, and four of his brothers, fell at Flodden. William, the third Lord Herries, died in 1543, leaving three daughters, co-heiresses. The eldest, Agnes, married in 1547 Sir John Maxwell, second son of Robert, fifth Lord Maxwell; Katherine, the second, became the wife of Sir Alexander Stewart of Garlies, ancestor of the Earls of Galloway; Janet, the third, married Sir James Cockburn of Stirling.


THE MAXWELLS.
page 53


Lord Herries ultimately submitted to the King's Government on the conclusion of the treaty of peace at Perth, 23rd February, 1572-3, between the Regent Morton, and Chatelherault and Huntly representing the Queen's party; but he took part with other nobles in the plot to deprive Morton of the office of Regent, and was appointed one of the council of twelve who were to assist the young King when he assumed the government. He attached himself to the party of Esme Stewart, Lord d'Aubigny, the royal favourite, who was created Earl and Duke of Lennox, and made various unsuccessful efforts to effect a reconciliation between him and his enemies, before the Duke was sent out of the kingdom.
 
THE JOHNSTONES OF ANNANDALE.
page 57


The chief seat of the Johnstones in those days of 'tugging and riving' was Lochwood, in the parish ofJohnstone, the position of which, in the midst of bogs and morasses, made it a for talice of great strength, and led to the remark of James VI., in allusion to the purpose which it served as a stronghold offreebooters, that 'the man who built it must have been a thief at heart.' Lochwood, however, was not the only fastness in which the Johnstones stored their booty. A few miles from Moffat there is a remarkable hollow, surrounded by hills on every side except at one narrow point, where a small stream issues from it. 'It looks,' says Pate in Peril, in 'Redgauntlet,' 'as if four hills were laying their heads together to shut out any daylight from the dark hollow space between them. A deep, black, blackguard-looking abyss of a hole it is, and goes straight down from the roadside as perpendicular as it can do to be a heathery brae. At the bottom there is a small bit of a brook that you would think could hardly find its way out from the hills that are so closely jammed round it.' This inaccessible hollow bore the name of the 'Marquis's Beef-stand,' or 'Beef-tub,' because 'the Annandale loons used to put their stolen cattle in there.' The Beef-stand was the scene of a remarkable adventure to a Jacobite gentleman while on theroad to Carlisle to stand his trial for his share in the rebellion of 1745. He made his escape from hisguards at this spot in the manner which Sir Walter Scott makes Maxwell of Summertrees, who bore the sobriquet of 'Pate in Peril,' describe in graphic terms as an adventure of his own:—
'I found myself on foot,' he said, 'on a misty morning with my hand, just for fear of going astray, linkedinto a handcuff, as they call it, with poor Harry Redgauntlet's fastened into the other; and there we were trudging along with about a score more that had thrust their horns ower deep in the bog, just like ourselves, and a sergeant's guard of redcoats, with two file of dragoons, to keep all quiet and give usheart to the road.…Just when we came on the edge of this Beef-stand of the Johnstones, I slipped out my hand from the handcuff, cried to Harry, "Follow me," whisked under the belly of the dragoon horse, flung my plaidround me with the speed of lightning, threw myself on my side, for there was no keeping my feet, and down the brae hurled I, over heather, and fern, and blackberries, like a barrel down Chalmers' Close in Auld Reekie. I never could help laughing when I think how the scoundrel redcoats must have been bum-hazed; for the mist being, as I said, thick, they had little notion, I take it, that they were on the verge of such a dilemma. I was half-way down—for rowing is faster wark than rinning—ere they could get at their arms; and then it was flash, flash, flash, rap, rap, rap, from the edge of the road; but my head was too jumbled to think anything either of that or of the hard knocks I got among the stones. I kept my senses together, whilk has been thought wonderful by all that ever saw the place; and I helped myself with myhands as gallantly as I could, and to the bottom I came. There I lay for half a moment; but the thought of a gallows is worth all the salts and scent-bottles in the world for bringing a man to himself. Up I sprung like a four-year-old colt. All the hills were spinning round me like so many great big humming-tops. But there was no time to think of that neither, more especially as the mist had risen a little with the firing. I could see the villains like sae many crows on the edge of the brae; and I reckon that they saw me, for some of the loons were beginning to crawl down the hill, but liker auld wives in their red cloaks, coming frae a field-preaching, than such a souple lad as I. Accordingly they soon began to stop and load their pieces. "Good-e'en to you, gentlemen," thought I, "if that is to be the gate of it. If you have any farther word with me you maun come as far as Carriefrawgauns." And so off I set, and never buck went faster ower the braes than I did; and I never stopped till I had put three waters, reasonably deep, as the season was rainy, half-a-dozen mountains, and a few thousand acres of the wurst moss and ling in Scotland betwixt me and my friends the redcoats.'
Sir Walter Scott says he saw in his youth the gentleman to whom the adventure actually happened.* [p.56] The Johnstones, unlike the Armstrongs, Elliots, and Grahams, 'sought the beeves that made their broth' only in Cumberland and Northumberland, though they would probably have had no scruples in making a prey of any outlying cattle belonging to the Maxwells, with whom they had a hereditary feud. Lord Maxwell, the head of this great family, was in the sixteenth century the most powerful man in the south-west of Scotland. But the Johnstones, though inferior in numbers and power, were able, through their valour, and the strong position which they held in the mountainous district of Annandale, to maintain their ground against their formidable rivals. In 1585 Lord Maxwell opposed the profligate government of the worthless royal favourite, James Stewart, Earl of Arran, and was in consequence declared a rebel. According to the common, but most objectionable practice of that period, the Court gave a commission to Johnstone, his enemy, to proceed against him with fire and sword, and to apprehend him; and two bands of hired soldiers, commanded by Captains Cranstoun and Lammie, were despatched to Johnstone's assistance. They were intercepted, however, on Crawford Moor, by Robert Maxwell, of Castlemilk, and after a sharp conflict the mercenary forces were defeated. Lammie and most of his company were killed, and Cranstoun was taken prisoner. In relating this incident Sir Walter Scott says, 'It is devoutly to be wished that this Lammie may have been the miscreant who, in the day of Queen Mary's distress, when she surrendered to the nobles at Carberry Hill, "his ensign being of white taffety, had painted on it the cruel murder of King Henry, and laid down before her Majesty at what time she presented herself as prisoner to the Lords." It was very probably so, as he was then, and continued to be till his death, a hired soldier of the Government. Nine months after the incident in question, the following entry appears in the Lord Treasurer's books, under March 18, 1567-8: "To Captain Andro Lambie, for his expenses pass and of Glasgow to Edinburgh to uplift certain men of weir, and to make one Handsenyie of white taffety, £25" [Scots]. He was then acting for the Regent Moray. It seems probable that, having spoiled his ensign by the picture of the king's murder, he was now gratified with a new one at the expense of his employer.'— See Domestic Annals of Scotland, i. p. 156, note, and Border Minstrelsy, ii. p. 134, note.* Maxwell followed up his success by setting fire to Johnstone's castle of Lochwood, remarking with savage glee that he would give Lady Johnstone light enough by which 'to set her hood.' Unfortunately, besides the 'haill house, bedding,and plenisching,' Johnstone's charter-chest, containing the whole muniments of the family, and many other valuable papers, perished in the flames.
 
THE STEWARTS OF TRAQUAIR.
page 67


The estate of Traquair was originally a royal domain, and was conferred by Robert Bruce on his warm friend and devoted adherent, Lord James Douglas. After passing through various hands, it came into possession of an ancestor of the Murrays of Elibank, and was forfeited by William Murray in 1464. It was given to William Douglas of Cluny, but was almost immediately thereafter assigned to the Boyds. On the forfeiture of Robert, Lord Boyd, the head of this powerful family, in 1469, the estate was resumed by the Crown, but was shortly after conferred upon Dr. William Rogers, an eminent musician, and one of the favourites of the ill-starred James III. After holding the lands for upwards of nine years, Dr. Rogers sold them for an insignificant sum, in 1478, to James Stewart, Earl of Buchan, the second son of Sir James Stewart, called the Black Knight of Lorn, by Lady Jane Beaufort, widow of James I. The Earl conferred Traquair, in 1491, on his natural son, JAMES STEWART, the founder of the Traquair family. He obtained letters of legitimation, and married the heiress of the Rutherfords, with whom he received the estates of Rutherford and Wells in Roxburghshire. Like the great body of the chivalry of Tweeddale, and the 'Flowers of the Forest,' he fell along with his sovereign on the fatal field of Flodden in 1513. Four of the sons of this stalwart Borderer possessed the Traquair estates in succession, one of whom was knighted by Queen Mary when she created Darnley Duke of Albany, and was appointed captain of her guard, and, no doubt in that capacity, is said to have accompanied the Queen and her husband in their flight to Dunbar after the murder of Rizzio. He continued a steady friend of the ill-fated princess, and was one of the barons who entered into a bond of association to support her cause after her escape from Loch Leven in 1568.
 
THE STEWARTS OF TRAQUAIR.
page 82


CHARLES, seventh Earl of Traquair, made application in 1779 for a concession of the exclusive working of certain mines in Spain, in which he believed there were vast deposits of coal. The Earl seems also to have entertained the wish that a grandeeshlp and a suitable establishment in Spain should be conferred upon him, because cadet of his family had formerly gone to that country, and allied himself to one of the noble houses. Heapplied to Henry Stewart, Cardinal York, the last of the royal Stewarts, for his influence in the matter,who replied to his letter in kind and courteous terms. 'You may be assured,' he said, 'I have full cognizance of the merits and prerogatives of your family, but I cannot but remark that it is the first time in all my lifetime I have ever seen your signature, or that of anyone belonging to you. That, however, has not hindered me from writing a very strong letter to the Duque of Alcudia in your favour, and I have also taken other means for to facilitate the good success of your petition. I heartily wish my endeavours may have their effect in reguard of you and your son, and the meanwhile be assured of my sincere esteem and kind friendship.' It appears that the application was not successful, for a second equally kind letter from the Cardinal, in 1795, expresses his hope that the affair will have a successful termination. The concession, however, was not granted. Ninth Report of Historical MSS. Cammission, part ii. p. 243.
 
THE DRUMMONDS.
page 87


Mr. Fraser, in his elaborate and most interesting work, entitled, 'The Red Book of Menteith,' has proved,by conclusive evidence, that these statements respecting the origin of the Drummond family are purely apocryphal. The word Drummond, Drymen, or Drummin, is used as a local name in several counties of Scotland, and is derived from the Celtic word druim, a ridge or knoll. The first person who can be proved to have borne the name was one Malcolm of Drummond, who, along with his brother, named Gilbert, witnessed the charters of Maldouen, third Earl of Lennox, from 1225 to 1270. But this Malcolm was simply a chamberlain to the Earl. Mr. Drummond states that he was made hereditary thane or seneschal of Lennox, which is quite unsupported by evidence; and he asserts that Malcolm's estates reached from the shores of the Gareloch, in Argyllshire, across the counties of Dumbarton and Stirling into Perthshire, which Mr. Fraser has shown to be an entire mistake. Instead of the Barony of Drymen, or Drummond, having been granted to a Prince Maurice by Malcolm Canmore in 1070, the lands belonged to the Crown previous to the year 1489, when for the first time they were let on lease to John, first Lord Drummond, and afterwards granted to him as feu-farm. The earliest charter to the family of any lands having a similar name was granted in 1362, by Robert Stewart of Scotland, Earl of Strathern, to Maurice of Drummond, of the dominical lands, or mains of Drommand and Tulychravin, in the earldom of Strathern. It is doubtful if he ever entered into possession of these lands; but it is clear that, whether he did so or not, they did not belong to the Drummond family previous to the grant of 1362, but were part of the estates of the Earl of Strathern, and that they are wholly distinct from the lands and lordship of Drummond afterwards acquired by John Drummond, who sat in Parliament 6th May, 1471, under the designation of Dominus de Stobhall, and, sixteen years later, was created a peer of Parliament by James III.
 
THE DRUMMONDS.
page 89


On the 5th of January, 1535, King James V. entered into an obligation to infeft DAVID, second Lord Drummond, in all the lands which had belonged to his great-grandfather, John, the first lord, and which were in the King's hands by reason of escheat and forfeiture, through the accusation brought against John, Lord Drummond, for the treasonable and violent putting of hands on the King's officer then called Lyon King-of-Arms. Certain specified lands, however, were excepted—viz., Innerpeffrey, Foirdow, Aucterarder, Dalquhenzie and Glencoyth, with the patronage of the pro-vostry and chaplaincy of Innerpeffrey, which were to be given by the King to John Drummond of Innerpeffrey, and to the King's sister, Margaret, Lady Gordon, his spouse. It was stipulated in the obligation that David, Lord Drummond, was to marry Margaret Stewart, daughter of Margaret, Lady Gordon. The instrument of  infeftment, dated 1st and 2nd November, 1542, affords the most positive proof of the distinction between the old and new possessions of Drummond in Stirlingshire and Drommane in Strathern, and the two were for the first time, by a charter dated 25th October, 1542, 'united, erected, and incorporated into a free barony, to be called in all tymes to cure the Barony of Drummen.' It is evident, then, that 'whatever lands in the Lennox the earlier members of the house of Drummond might have held, such certainly did not comprehend the lands bearing their own name.' The lands of Drummond were sold by the Earl of Perth, in 1631, to William, Earl of Strathern and Menteith. The eighth and last Earl entailed them upon James, Marquis of Montrose, and they have ever since formed part of the Montrose estates.

THE DRUMMONDS.
page 90


It thus appears that the founder of the Drummond family was not a Hungarian prince, or even gentleman,but Malcolm Beg, chamberlain to the Earl of Lennox. When the War of Independence broke out the Drummonds embraced the patriotic side. JOHN OF DRUMMOND was taken prisoner at the battle of Dunbar, and was imprisoned in the castle of Wisbeach; but he was set at liberty in August, 1297, on Sir Edmund Hastings, proprietor of part of Menteith in right of his wife, Lady Isabella Comyn, offering himself as security, and on the condition that he would accompany King Edward to France. His eldest son, SIR MALCOLM DRUMMOND, was a zealous supporter of the claims of Robert Bruce to the Scottish throne, and like his father fell into the hands of the English, having been taken prisoner by SirJohn Segrave. On hearing this 'good news,' King Edward, on the 20th of August, 1301, offered oblations at the shrine of St. Mungo, in the cathedral of Glasgow. After the independence of the country was secured by the crowning victory of Bannockburn, MALCOLMwas rewarded for his services by King Robert Bruce with lands in Perthshire. Sir Robert Douglas, the eminent genealogist, conjectures that the caltrops, or four-spiked pieces of iron, with the motto 'Gang warily,' in the armorial bearings of the Drummonds, were bestowed as an acknowledgment of Sir Malcolm's active efforts in the use of these formidable weapons at the battle of Bannockburn. Hisgrandson, JOHN DRUMMOND, married the eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Montefex, It has hitherto been supposed that the estates of Stobhall and Cargill, on the Tay, which still belong to the family, came into the possession of the Drummonds by marriage with this heiress, but they were in reality bestowed by David II. on Queen Margaret, and were given by her to Malcolm ofDrummond, her nephew.* the first of the numerous fortunate marriages made by the Drummonds. Maurice, another grandson, married the heiress of Concraig and of the Stewardship of Strathearn. A second son, SIR MALCOLM, whom Wyntoun terms 'a manfull knycht, baith wise and wary,' fought at the battle of Otterburn in 1388, in which his brother-in-law, James, second Earl of Douglas and Mar, was killed, and succeeded him in the latter earldom, in right of his wife, Lady Isabel Douglas, only daughter of William, first Earl of Douglas. He seems to have had some share in the capture at that battle of Ralph Percy, brother of the famous Hotspur, as he received from Robert III. a pension of £20, in satisfaction of the third part of Percy's ransom, which exceeded £600. He died of his 'hard captivity' which he endured at the hands of a band of ruffians by whom he was seized and imprisoned. His widow, the heiress of the ancient family of Mar, was forcibly married by Alexander Stewart, a natural son of 'the Wolf of Badenoch.'  


THE DRUMMONDS.
page 92


The Drummonds were not only a brave and energetic race, but they were conspicuous for their handsome persons and gallant bearing. Good looks ran in their blood, and the ladies of the family were famous for their personal beauty, which no doubt led to the great marriages made by them, generation after generation, with the Douglases, Gordons, Grahams, Crawfords, Kers, and other powerful families,which greatly increased the influence and possessions of their house. Margaret, daughter of Malcolm, Lord Drummond, and widow of Sir John Logie, became the second wife of David II., who seems to have been familiar with her during her husband's lifetime. The Drummonds gave a second queen to Scotland in the person of Annabella, the saintly wife of Robert III., and mother of the unfortunate David, Duke of Rothesay, and of James I., whose 'depth of sagacity and firmness of mind' contributed not a little to the good government of the kingdom. They had nearly given another royal consort to share the throne of James IV., who was devotedly attached to Margaret, eldest daughter of the first Lord Drummond, a lady of great beauty. The entries in the Lord High Treasurer's accounts respecting the frequent rich presents lavishedon a certain Lady Margaret, which have been adduced as proofs of the relation in which Lady Margaret Drummond stood to James, have been proved to refer to Lady Margaret Stewart, the King's aunt. James, indeed, was a mere boy when those sums were paid; his connection with Margaret Drummond did not commence until the summer of 1496.* But that king's purpose to marry her was frustrated by her death, in consequence of poison administered by some of the nobles, who were envious of the honour which was a third time about to be conferred on her family. Her two younger sisters, who accidentally partook of the poisoned dish, shared her fate. The historian of the Drummonds states that James was 'affianced to Lady Margaret, and meant to make her his queen without consulting his council. He was opposed by those nobles who wished him to wed Margaret Tudor. His clergy likewise protested against his marriage as within the prohibited degrees. Before the King could receive the dispensation, his wife (the Lady Margaret) was poisoned at breakfast at Drummond Castle, with her two sisters. Suspicion fell on the Kennedys—a rival house, a member of which, Lady Janet Kennedy, daughter of John, Lord Kennedy, had borne a son to the King.' A slightly different account is given in 'Morreri's Dictionary,' on the authority of a manuscript history of the family of Drummond, composed in 1689. It is there stated that Lady Margaret, daughter of the first Lord Drummond, 'was so much beloved by James IV. that he wished to marry her, but as they were connected by blood, and a dispensation from the Pope was required, the impatient monarch concluded a private marriage, from which clandestine union sprang a daughter, who became the wife of the Earl of Huntly. The dispensation having arrived, the King determined to celebrate his nuptials publicly; but the jealousy of some of the nobles against the house of Drummond suggested to them the cruel project of taking off Margaret by poison, in order that her family might not enjoy the glory of giving two queens to Scotland.' The three young ladies thus 'foully done to death' were buried in a vault, covered with three blue marble stones, in the choir of the cathedral of Dunblane.
 
THE DRUMMONDS.
page 95


His eldest son, JAMES, Lord Drummond, accompanied King James in his expedition to Ireland, took aprominent part in the rebellion of 1715, and was, in consequence, attainted by the British Parliament. But two years before this unsuccessful attempt to restore the Stewart family to the throne, he executed a disposition of his estates in favour of his son, which was sustained by the Court of Session, and affirmed by the House of Lords. Destiny, however, had set her hand on the ill-fated house, and its doom was only postponed, not averted. The heir of the family, JAMES, third titular Duke of Perth, true to the principles of his family, joined Prince Charles Stewart in the rebellion of 1745, at the head of his tenantry, and shared in all the perils and privations of that unfortunate adventurer. He was a young man of an amiable disposition and dauntless courage, but his abilities were very moderate, his constitution was weak, and he was quite inexperienced both in politics and in war. 'In spite of a very delicate constitution,' says Douglas, 'he underwent the greatest fatigues, and was the first on every occasion of duty where his head or his hands could be of use.' He commanded the right wing of the Highlanders at the battle of Prestonpans, directed the siege of Carlisle, and of the castle of Stirling, and was at the head of the left wing at the final conflict of Culloden. After that disastrous battle, though tracked and pursued by the English troops, he made his escape to Moidart, and embarked in a French vessel lying off that coast. But his constitution was quite worn out by the privations he had undergone, and he died on his passage to France, 11th May, 1746, at the age of thirty-three. His brother and heir, Lord John Drummond, a colonel in the French service, commanded the left wing of the Highlanders at the battle of Falkirk. On the suppression of the rebellion, he made his escape to France, served with distinction in Flanders under Marshal Saxe, and attained the rank of major-general shortly before his death, in

THE ERSKINES.
page 106


THE Erskine family, which has produced a remarkable number of eminent men in every department of public life, derived their designation from the barony of Erskine in Renfrewshire, situated on the southbank of the Clyde. A Henry de Erskine, from whom the family trace their descent, was proprietor of this barony so early as the reign of Alexander II. A daughter of his great-grandson, Sir John de Erskine, was married to Sir Thomas Bruce, a brother of King Robert, who was taken prisoner and put to death by the English; another became the wife of Walter, High Steward of Scotland. The brother of these ladies was a faithful adherent of Robert Bruce, and as a reward for his patriotism and valour, was knighted under the royal banner on the field. He died in 1329. His son, Sir Robert de Erskine, held the great offices of Lord High Chamberlain, justiciary north of the Forth, and Constable of the Castles of Edinburgh, Stirling, and Dumbarton. He was six times ambassador to England, was also sent on an embassy to France, was Warden of the Marches, and heritable Sheriff of Stirlingshire. He took an active part in securing the succession of the House of Stewart to the throne, on the death of David Bruce. In return for this important service he received from Robert II. a grant of the estate of Alloa, which still remains in the possession of the family, in exchange for the hunting-ground of Strathgartney. Sir Thomas, the son of this powerful-noble by his marriage to Janet Keith, great grand daughter of Gratney, Earl of Mar, laid the foundation of the claim which the Erskines preferred to that dignity, and the vast estates which were originally included in the earldom. Though their claim was rejected by James I., the family continued to prosper; new honours and possessions were liberally conferred upon them by successive  sovereigns, and they were elevated to the peerage in 1467. The second Lord Erskine fought onthe side of King James III. against the rebel lords at Sauchieburn. Robert, third Lord Erskine, fell at the battle of Flodden with four other gentlemen, his kinsmen. The grandson of that lord, the Master of Erskine, was killed at Pinkie. For several generations the Erskines were entrusted with the honourable and responsible duty of keeping the heirs to the Crown during their minority. James IV., James V., Queen Mary, James VI., and his eldest son, Prince Henry, were in turn committed to the charge of the head of the Erskine family, who discharged this important trust with great fidelity. John, the fourth Lord Erskine, who had the keeping of James V. during his minority, was employed by him in after life in important public affairs, was present at the melancholy death of that monarch at Falkland, and after that event afforded for some time a refuge to his infant daughter, the unfortunate Mary, in Stirling Castle, of which he was hereditary governor. On the invasion of Scotland by the English, he removed her for greater security to the Priory of Inchmahome, an island in the Lake of Menteith, which was his own property. His eldest son, who fell at the battle of Pinkie during his father's lifetime, was the ancestor, by an illegitimate son, of the Erskines of Shieldfield, near Dryburgh, from whom sprang the celebrated brothers Ebenezer and Ralph Erskine, the founders of the Secession Church.
 
THE ERSKINES.
page 108 


After the death of his first wife, Anne, daughter of David, Lord Drummond, the Earl fell ardently in lovewith Lady Mary Stewart, the daughter of the Duke of Lennox, the ill-fated royal favourite, and cousin of the King. As he was older than this French beauty, and had already a son and heir, she at first positively refused to marry him, remarking that 'Anne Drummond's bairn would be Earl of Mar, but that hers would be just Maister Erskine.' 'Being of a hawtie spirit,' says Lord Somerville, 'she disdained that the children begotten upon her should be any ways inferior, either as to honour or estate, to the children of the first marriage. She leaves nae means unessayed to advance their fortunes.' Memoirs of the Somervilles. Lord Somerville is mistaken in representing Lord Mar as an oldman at this time. He was little more than thirty years of age.*
 
THE ERSKINES.
page 109


The Earl took her rejection of his suit so much to heart as to become seriously ill; but the King strove tocomfort him, and, in his homely style of speech said, 'By my saul, Jock, ye sanna dee for ony lass in a'the land.' He was aware that the main cause of the lady's refusal to marry his friend was her knowledge of the fact that the Earl's son by his first wife would inherit his titles as well as his estates, and he informed her that if she married Mar, and bore him a son, he should also be made a peer. The inducement thus held out by his Majesty removed Lady Mary's scruples, and James was as good as his word. He created the Earl Lord Cardross, bestowing upon him at the same time the barony of that name, with the unusual privilege of authority to assign both the barony and the title to any of his sons whom he might choose. The Earl was the father of three peers, and the father-in-law of four powerful earls. Lady Mary Stewart bore him five sons and four daughters. The eldest of these, Sir James Erskine, married Mary Douglas, Countess of Buchan in her own right, and was created Earl of Buchan. The second son, Henry, received from his father the title and the barony of Cardross. The third son, Colonel Sir Alexander Erskine, lost his life, along with his brother-in-law, the Earl of  Haddington and other Covenanting leaders, when Dunglass Castle was blown up in 1640 by theexplosion of the powder-magazine. He was a handsome and gallant soldier, originally in the Frenchservice, and is noted as the lover whose faithlessness is bewailed in the beautiful and pathetic songentitled, 'Lady Anne Bothwell's Lament.' Sir Charles Erskine, the fourth son, was ancestor of theErskines of Alva, now represented by the Earl of Rosslyn. William Erskine, the youngest son, was cup-bearer to Charles II., and Master of the Charterhouse, London. The Earl of Mar's youngest daughter married the eldest son of the Lord Chancellor, Thomas Hamilton, first Earl of Haddington—'Tam o' the Cowgate.' When King James heard of the intended marriage, knowing well the great ability, and the 'pawkiness' of the two noblemen who were thus to be brought into close alliance, he exclaimed inunfeigned, and not altogether groundless, alarm, 'Lord, haud a grupp o' me. If Tam o' the Cowgate's son marry Jock o' the Sclaits' daughter, what will become o' me'
 
THE ERSKINES.
page 112


Deeply mortified at this treatment, Mar resolved upon revenge, and entered into correspondence with the disaffected party in Scotland, with the view of exciting an insurrection against the reigning family. He attended a court levee on the 1st of August, 1715, and next morning he set out for Scotland to raise the standard of rebellion against the King to whom he just paid homage. Accompanied by Major-General Hamilton and Colonel Hay, the Earl, disguised as an artisan, sailed in a coal-barge from London to Newcastle. He hired a vessel there which conveyed him and his companions to the coast of Fife, and landed them at the small port of Elie. He spent a few days in that district among the Jacobite gentry, with whom he made arrangements to join him in the North. On the 17th of August he left Fife, and with forty horse proceeded to his estates in Aberdeenshire, sending out by the way invitations to a great hunting match in the forest of Braemar, on the 25th of that month. On the day appointed the leading Jacobite noblemen and chiefs assembled, attended by a few hundreds of their vassals, and after a glowing address from Mar, denouncing the usurping intruder who occupied the throne, and holding out large promises of assistance from France in both troops and money, they resolved to take up arms on behalf of the exiled Stewart family. Accordingly, on the 6th of September, the Jacobite standard was unfurled at Castletown, in Braemar.
 
THE ERSKINES OF BUCHAN AND CARDROSS.
page 119


In 1371 a grant of the dormant earldom of Buchan was made by Robert III. to SIR ALEXANDER STEWART, his fourth son by his first wife, Elizabeth Mure, who, on account of his savage character and conduct, was designated 'the Wolf of Badenoch,' the district of which he was lord. He also obtained the earldom of Ross for life, in right of his wife. In the year 1390 he invaded the district of Moray, in revenge of a quarrel with the bishop of that see, and besides ravaging the country, he plundered and profaned the cathedral of Elgin, which he afterwards set on fire, reducing that noble edifice, with the adjoining religious houses, and the town itself, to a mass of blackened ruins. He was subsequently obliged to do public penance for this crime in the Blackfriars church of Perth, and to make full satisfaction to the bishop.
 
THE ERSKINES OF BUCHAN AND CARDROSS.
page 120


At the death of this savage noble, in 1394, the earldom devolved upon his brother, ROBERT, Duke ofAlbany; but in 1408, as Regent, he conferred the title upon SIR JOHN STEWART, his second son. In 1419, with consent of the Estates, the Earl was sent with an army of seven thousand men to the assistance of the French king in his contest with England for his crown. These auxiliaries won great renown under the leadership of Buchan, and rendered important services to the French in their struggle for independence. On the 22nd of March, 1421, they defeated, at Beaugé, a large English force, under the Duke of Clarence, brother of Henry V. Fourteen hundred men, along with the Earl of Kent and Lords Gray and Ross, fell in this encounter. Clarence himself was unhorsed and wounded by Sir William Swinton, and, as he strove to regain his steed, he was felled to the earth and killed by the mace of the Earl of Buchan. As a reward for this signal victory the Dauphin conferred upon Buchan the high office of Constable of France. Three years later, however, the Scottish auxiliaries were almost annihilated at the fatal battle of Verneuil, and their commander, the Earl of Buchan, was among the slain. He married Lady Elizabeth Douglas, daughter of Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas and Duke of Touraine, by whom he had an only daughter, who became the wife of George, second Lord Seton. The earldom of Buchan devolved upon [p.120] his brother, MURDOCH, Duke of Albany, at whose execution, in 1425, it was forfeited to the Crown.
 
THE ERSKINES OF BUCHAN AND CARDROSS.
page 120


The title remained dormant for forty-one years, but in 1466 it was bestowed on JAMES STEWART,surnamed 'Hearty James,' the second son of Sir James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn, by Lady Jane Beaufort, widow of James I. The new Earl was consequently uterine brother to James II. He was appointed High Chamberlain of Scotland in 1471, and two years later he was sent on an embassy to France. His son and grandson were successively Earls of Buchan. John, Master of Buchan, eldest son of the latter, fell at the battle of Pinkie, in 1547, leaving an only child, Christian, who became Countess ofBuchan in her own right. She married Robert Douglas, second son of Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven, uterine brother of the Regent Moray. He obtained the title of Earl of Buchan in right of his wife. Their only son, JAMES, became fifth Earl of Buchan of this family, and died in 1601, at the early age of twenty-one. He left an only child, MARY DOUGLAS, who succeeded to the title and estates; and by her marriage with James Erskine, son of John, seventh Earl of Mar, carried the earldom into the Erskine family. Her household book, which contains numerous items, such as 'to a poor minister who bemoanet his poverty to my lady,' shows that she was extremely generous to the poor. Not even 'ane masterfull beggar, who did knock at the gate, my lady being at table,' nor 'ane drunken beggar, who fainit he was madd,' was sent empty away.
 
THE ERSKINES OF BUCHAN AND CARDROSS.
page 121


We have seen how the barony of Cardross was bestowed upon the Earl by James VI., in fulfilment of apromise made by him to Lady Mary Stewart, the Earl's second wife. It was formed out of the abbacies of Dryburgh and Cambuskenneth, and the priory of Inchmahome, which, as the charter sets forth, 'havebene in all tyme heretofore commounlie disponit be his mateis predecessors to sum that were cum of the hous of Erskeyne.' The allusion is to Adam Erskine, Commendator of Cambuskenneth, natural son of Thomas,  Master of Erskine, and to David, first Abbot, and afterwards Commendator of Dryburgh,natural son of Robert, Master of Erskine, killed at Pinkie (elder brother of Thomas). Lord Erskine's third son John was 'Commendator of Inschemachame.' Henry Erskine, his Kinsfolk and Times. By Lieut.-Col. Ferguson.*
 
THE ERSKINES OF BUCHAN AND CARDROSS.
page 122


DAVID, second Lord Cardross, his son, was one of the Scottish peers who protested against the delivering up of Charles I. to the English army at Newcastle in 1646. His younger son, the Hon. Colonel John Erskine of Cardross, was father of John Erskine, the author of the well-known 'Institutes of the Law of Scotland,' and his grandson was the celebrated Dr. John Erskine, Minister of Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh, of whom Sir Walter Scott has given a graphic portrait in 'Guy Mannering.' HENRY, third Lord Cardross, his eldest son by his first wife, Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Hope, King's Advocate, was an eminent patriot, and one of the most prominent opponents of the Duke of Lauderdale's arbitrary and oppressive administration. He succeeded to the family title and estates in 1671, and married Katherine, second daughter and ultimately heiress of Sir James Stewart of Strathbrock (or Uphall) and Kirkhill, in Linlithgowshire. In consequence of his support of the cause of civil and religious liberty, his lordship underwent long and severe persecution. In the statement laid before the King of the sufferings he endured it is mentioned that in August, 1675, he was fined by the Scottish Privy Council the sum of£1,000, for the offence of his lady's having divine worship performed in his own house, by his ownchaplain, when Lord Cardross was not present. He was further fined by the Council in £112 10s. for his tenants having [p.122] attended two conventicles. He was imprisoned in the castle of Edinburgh for four years, and while a prisoner there was fined, in August, 1677, in the sum of £3,000, the half of his valued rent, for his lady having, without his knowledge, had a child baptised by a Nonconforming minister. A garrison was fixed in his house in 1675; and in June, 1679, the royal forces, on their march to the west, went two miles out of their road, in order that they might be quartered on Lord Cardross's estates of Kirkhill and Uphall.
 
THE ERSKINES OF BUCHAN AND CARDROSS.
page 122


On his return to Europe, Lord Cardross took up his residence at the Hague, where Lords Stair and Melville, Sir Patrick Hume of Polwarth, Sir James Stewart of Coltness, Fletcher of Saltoun, and other Scottish exiles, were at that time settled, anxiously waiting for better times. He accompanied William of Orange to England in 1688, and in the following year raised a regiment of dragoons for the support of his cause. An Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament restoring Lord Cardross to his estates. He was also sworn a Privy Councillor, and was appointed Governor of the Mint. He died at Edinburgh in May, 1693, in the forty-fourth year of his age.

THE ERSKINES OF BUCHAN AND CARDROSS.
page 124


HENRY DAVID, tenth Earl of Buchan, married Agnes Stewart, daughter of Sir James Stewart of Coltness, Solicitor-General for Scotland, and of his wife, the witty and beautiful Anne Dalrymple, daughter of Sir Hew Dalrymple, of North Berwick, President of the Court of Session. Lady Buchan was the grand-daughter of Sir James Stewart of Goodtrees, Lord Advocate to King William, and Queen Anne, popularly designated "Jamie Wylie," on account of his crafty character and shifty conduct. The Earl and his wife were strict Presbyterians. His grandson describes him as 'a zealously religious man, strong in his anti-Roman convictions, though he inclined in a great way towards the Stewarts.' He was a man of great good-nature and polite manners, but of moderate abilities. His wife, however, was a woman of great intellect, which she had diligently cultivated. She had studied mathematics under the famous Colin Maclaurin, the friend of Sir Isaac Newton—a rare accomplishment at that time. She also possessed an elegant taste with a brilliant imagination, and, above all, an eminent and earnest piety. Her ladyship had also the reputation of being a notable manager—an acquirement greatly needed in the narrow circumstances of the family. The ample patrimony which at one time belonged to the heads of the house of Erskine had been greatly diminished, partly by mismanagement, and neglect of economy, partly through the losses sustained  by Lord Cardross during the time of the 'Persecution.' About the year 1745 Lord Buchan had been obliged to sell the estate of Cardross to his cousin of Carnock, so that the Linlithgowshire estates alone remained in his possession. But though his income was small for a person of his rank and position, it was sufficient, 'with the careful economy practised by Lady Buchan, for comfort, in accordance with the primitive notions of those days.' The Earl had quitted his seat in the country, and had taken up his residence in a flat at the head of Gray's Close, in the High Street of Edinburgh. His house, however, was frequented not only by the most eminent divines of the city, but by judges and leading advocates, and by members of other noble though not wealthy families, who came to partake of 'a cosy dish of tea,' which was at that time the usual form of social entertainment. Colonel Ferguson has shown that Lord Campbell, in his Life of Lord Erskine, has greatly exaggerated the poverty of the Earl of Buchan at this time.*
 
THE ERSKINES OF BUCHAN AND CARDROSS.
page 125


DAVID STEWART ERSKINE, eleventh Earl of Buchan, born in 1742. He was educated at the University of Glasgow, was for a short time in the army, next tried the diplomatic profession, under the great Lord Chatham (then Mr. Pitt), and in 1766 was appointed Secretary to the British Embassy in Spain. He did not, however, proceed to Madrid, and it was reported at the time that he declined to do so because the ambassador, Sir James Gray, was a person of inferior social rank. According to Horace Walpole, the father of Sir James was first a box-keeper, and then a footman to James VII. Boswell mentions that in discussing the merits of this question with Sir Alexander Macdonald, Dr. Johnson observed that, perhaps, in point of interest the young lord did wrong, but in point of dignity he did well. Sir Alexander held that Lord Cardross was altogether wrong, and contended that Mr. Pitt meant it as an advantageous thing to him. 'Why, sir,' said Johnson, 'Mr. Pitt might think it an  advantageous thing for him to make him a vintner, and get him all the Portugal trade; but he would have demeaned himself strangely had he accepted of such a situation. Sir, had he gone as secretary while his inferior was ambassador, he would have been a traitor to his rank and his family.' Boswell's Life of Johnson, iii. p. 111.* Mr. Croker has justly remarked upon this discussion, 'If this principle were to be admitted, the young nobility would be excluded from all professions, for the superiors in the professions would frequently be their inferiors in personal rank. Would Johnson have dissuaded Lord Cardross from entering on the military profession, because at his outset he must have been commanded by a person inferior in personal rank?' Professor Rouet, however, wrote to his cousin, Baron Mure, 'Cardross does not go to Spain because of the bad state of his father's health.' But it must be admitted that the other reason alleged for declining the office was quite in keeping with the character of the young patrician.
 
THE ERSKINES OF KELLIE
page 139


Lord Erskine was succeeded by his eldest son, DAVID MONTAGUE, who served his country as Minister to the United States, and at the Court of Wirtemberg. Thomas, his third son, 'one of the most amiable and upright of men,' was a judge of the Court of Common Pleas. Esme Stewart, the youngest, a lieutenant-colonel, was Deputy Adjutant-General at the battle of Waterloo, and died from the consequences of a severe wound, which he received from a cannon-shot near the end of the day, by the side of the Duke of Wellington. 


THE GRAHAMS.
page 144


From this time downwards the Grahams have taken a prominent part in public, and especially in warlike, affairs. The son of Sir David, who bore his name, which seems to have been a favourite one among the early Grahams, was a zealous adherent of Robert Bruce, and defended the independence of his native country so stoutly, that he was excepted from the pacification which King Edward made with the Scots in 1303-4. Along with two of his kinsmen, he signed the famous letter to the Pope vindicating in noble terms the independence of Scotland. He died in 1327. It was he who exchanged with King Robert Bruce the estate of Cardross for Old Montrose. His son, also named Sir David, was taken prisoner with his sovereign, David II., at the battle of Durham. Sir David's son, Sir Patrick of Graham, was the ancestor both of the Montrose and Menteith Grahams. His son and successor, by his first wife, Sir William, carried on the main line of the family. His eldest son, Patrick, by his second wife, Egidia, niece of Robert II., married— probably about the year 1406—Eufemea Stewart, Countess Palatine of Strathern, and either through courtesy of his wife, or by creation, became Earl Palatine of Strathern. (See EARLS OF MENTEITH.)
 
THE GRAHAMS.
page 145


The elder son of Sir William Graham by his first wife predeceased him, leaving two sons. By his second wife, the Princess Mary Stewart, daughter of Robert II., Sir William had five sons, from the eldest of whom descended the Grahams of Fintry, of Claverhouse, and of Duntrune, and the third was the ancestor of the gallant Sir Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch. Patrick Graham, Sir William's second son, by the Princess Mary, was consecrated Bishop of Brechin in 1463, and was translated to St. Andrews in 1466. He was a learned and virtuous prelate, worthy to succeed the illustrious Bishop Kennedy, his near relative—a model bishop. Anxious to vindicate the independence of the Scottish Church, over which the Archbishop of York claimed jurisdiction, he visited Rome, and procured from the Pope a bull erecting his see into an archbishopric, and appointing him metropolitan, papal nuncio, and legate a latere, in Scotland for three years. On his return home the Archbishop was assailed with vindictive malignity by his ecclesiastical rivals. The inferior clergy rejoiced in his advancement; but the dignitaries of the Church, through envy and dread of the reforms which he was prepared to inaugurate, became his inveterate enemies. By bribing the King, James III., they succeeded in obtaining the degradation and imprisonment of the unfortunate prelate, on the plea that he had infringed the royal prerogative by applying to the papal court without the King's license. It is alleged, in a report recently found in the Roman archives, that Graham had proclaimed himself divinely appointed to reform ecclesiastical abuses, and had revoked indulgences granted at Rome, appointed legates, and had committed other similar illegal acts. There is reason to believe that the persecution which the Archbishop underwent had affected his mind. Schevez, an able, but unprincipled and profligate ecclesiastic, who succeeded Graham in the primacy, and was the leader of the hostile party, had him declared insane, and procured the custody of his person. He was confined first in Inchcolm, and afterwards in the castle of Loch Leven, where he died in 1478.
 
THOMAS GRAHAM, LORD LYNEDOCH.
page 170


THIS gallant soldier and skilful general was the greatest man produced by the family of Graham since the illustrious Marquis of Montrose. He was descended in the direct line from Sir William Graham of Kincardine, and Mary Stewart, a daughter of Robert III. Sir William was the ancestor of the Dukes of Montrose, the Earls of Strathern and Menteith, and all the other branches of the 'gallant Grahams. 'Thomas Graham was the third and only surviving son of Thomas Graham (or Græme, as he spelled his name) of Balgowan, in Perthshire, by his wife, Lady Christian Hope, a daughter of the first Earl of Hopetoun. He was born in 1748, and received his early education at home, under the tuition first of the Rev. Mr. Fraser, minister of Monedie, and afterwards of the celebrated James Macpherson, the collector and translator of Ossian's poems. Young Graham was sent to Christchurch, Oxford, in 1766, and in the following year the death of his father put him in possession of a handsome and unen-cumbered estate. On leaving college, he spent several years on the Continent, where he acquired a thorough knowledge of the French and German languages. On his return to Scotland he devoted himself to the management and improvement of his estate. He enclosed his lands, erected comfortable farmhouses and offices, granted leases to his tenants, encouraged them to provide improved implements of husbandry, and to cultivate on a large scale potatoes and turnips, which had hitherto been regarded as mere garden plants. He also set himself with great care to cultivate improved breeds of horses, cattle, and sheep. He purchased, in 1785, the estate of Lynedoch or Lednoch, situated in a picturesque part of the valley of the Almond, and took great delight in planting trees and oak coppices, and in beautifying the sloping banks which border the course of  that stream. From his boyhood upwards, he was fond of horses and dogs, and was distinguished for his skill in all country sports, for which his stalwart and athletic frame eminently fitted him. He rode with the foxhounds, and accompanied the Duke of Athole, who subsequently became his brother-in-law, in grouse-shooting and deer-stalking on the Athole moors. He used to say, in after years, that he owed much of that education of the eye with reference to ground and distances, so useful to a military man, to his deer-hunting at this period of his life in the Forest of Athole.
 
THE SCOTTS OF BUCCLEUCH.
page 204


Sir Walter commenced the rebuilding of Branxholm Castle; but the work, though it had been carried on for three years, was not completed at the time of his death, April 17th, 1574; it was finished by his widow, Lady Margaret Douglas, whom he married when he was only sixteen years of age. He had by her a son, Walter, and two daughters. She took for her second husband Francis Stewart, the factious and intriguing Earl of Bothwell, to whom she bore three sons and three daughters. She survived her first husband for the long period of sixty-six years, and died in the year 1640.
 
THE SCOTTS OF BUCCLEUCH.
page 220


FRANCIS, second Duke of Buccleuch, who married Lady Jane Douglas, eldest daughter of the second Duke of Queensberry, whose titles and estates were inherited by their grandson, the third Duke of Buccleuch. It is somewhat singular that a marriage was at one time proposed between Duke Francis, when Earl of Dalkeith, and another Lady Jane Douglas,the only sister of the Duke of Douglas, whose marriage to Sir John Stewart led to the famous 'Douglas Case.' (See THE ANGUS DOUGLASES, i. 91.) If this proposal had been carried into effect, it would, in all probability have united the dukedom of Buccleuch with that of Douglas, instead of Queensberry. It is not improbable that the duel which took place between the Earl of Dalkeith and his intended brother-in-law may have had something to do with this affair. Duchess Anne, who was displeased at the breaking off of the match, imputed the blame to the Duchess of Queensberry, of whom she pungently remarked, 'She has the same fait which some others has in this worald, more power than they deserve.' Strange to say, however, the extensive estates, though not the titles of the Douglas family, were inherited by the great-granddaughter of Duke Francis. (See THE HOMES, i. 386.)
 
THE SCOTTS OF HARDEN.
page 246


Raeburn's eldest son, William, at the age of twenty-four, fell in a duel with Pringle of Crichton, which was fought with swords, near Selkirk, in 1707. The second son, Walter, received a good education at the University of Glasgow. He was a zealous Jacobite, and was called 'Beardie,' from a vow which he had made never to shave his beard till the exiled royal family were restored. Sir Walter Scott says of him 'that it would have been well if his zeal for the banished dynasty of Stewart had stopped with his letting his beard grow. But he took arms, and intrigued in their cause, until he lost all he had in the world, and, as I have heard, ran a narrow risk of being hanged, had it not been for the interference of Anne, Duchess of Buccleuch and Monmouth.'
 
THE HEPBURNS.
page 254


Notwithstanding his ready compliance with the wishes of the Cardinal, Bothwell was soon after again committed to prison, in all probability in consequence of his intrigues with England, and did not obtain his release until after the battle of Pinkie, 10th September, 1547. He immediately waited upon the Duke of Somerset, the commander of the invading army, and there can be little doubt that he then gave in his adherence to the English cause. He is described as 'a gentleman of a right comely porte and stature, and heretofore of right honourable and just meaning and dealing towards the King's Majesty (Henry VIII.), whom therefore, my Lord's Grace did according to his degree and merits very friendly welcome and maintain.' There was good reason why the Earl received a cordial welcome from the ruthless English invaders, for it has been ascertained that he had gone over wholly to their side. An instrument, dated at Westminster, 3rd September, 1549, sets forth that King Edward had taken the Earl of Bothwell under his protection and favour, granting him a yearly rent of three thousand crowns, and the wages of a hundred horsemen for the defence of his person, and the annoyance of the enemy; and, if he should lose his lands in Scotland in the English King's service for the space of three years, promising to give him lands of equal value in England. There are good grounds for believing that the traitorous noble spent the remainder of his life in exile, and that he died in 1556. He left a son, who succeeded him in the family title and estates, and a daughter. The latter became the wife of John Stewart, Prior of Coldingham, a natural son of James V., to whom she bore Francis Stewart, the turbulent Earl of Bothwell who so often disturbed the peace of the country during the reign of James VI.

THE HEPBURNS.
page 255


JAMES HEPBURN, fourth Earl of Bothwell, whose foul crimes have stamped his memory with infamy,was born about the year 1536. His early years were spent in the castle of Spynie, near Elgin, with his granduncle, Patrick Hepburn, Bishop of Moray, a prelate who was conspicuous, even at that immoral period, for the neglect of the duties of his office, and his gross licentiousness. James Hepburn was only in his nineteenth or twentieth year when his father died, and he succeeded him not only in the family titles and estates, including the strong fortresses of Bothwell, Crichton and Hailes, but also in his hereditary offices of Lord High Admiral of Scotland, Sheriff of the counties of Berwick, Haddington, and Midlothian, and Bailiff of Lauderdale. He was thus the most powerful nobleman in the south of Scotland. This 'glorious, rash, and hazardous young man,' as he is styled by Walsingham, was, from his youth upwards, the cause of strife and discord in the country, and of trouble to the public authorities. Though he professed to be a Protestant, he espoused the cause of the Queen Regent against the Lords of the Congregation, and showed himself utterly unscrupulous in the means he adopted to promote her interests. In 1558, though little more than of age, he was appointed by her Lieutenant-General of the Middle Marches, and keeper of Hermitage Castle, which added largely to his already overgrown power. In October, 1559, having learned that Cockburn of Ormiston had received four thousand crowns from Sir Ralph Sadler, for the use of the Protestant party, Bothwell waylaid and wounded him, and robbed him of the money. On receiving intelligence of this gross outrage, the Earl of Arran, the Governor, and Lord James Stewart (afterwards Regent Moray) immediately went to Bothwell's house in Haddington, with a body of soldiers, to apprehend the depredator; but, a few minutes before they reached the place, he received intelligence of their approach and fled down the bed of the river Tyne, which is closely adjoining, and took refuge in the house of Cockburn of Sandybed. Entering by [p.255] the back door, which opened to the river, he changed clothes with the turnspit and performed the duties of that menial. In return for the protection afforded him in this extremity, Bothwell gave toCockburn and his heirs a perpetual ground annual of four bolls of wheat, four bolls of barley, and fourbolls of oats, to be paid yearly out of the lands of Mainshill, near Haddington. These quantities of grain continued to be paid to Cockburn's heirs till the year 1760, when his estate was sold by his descendant to Mr. Buchan of Lethem; and he shortly after disposed of the ground annual to the Earl of Wemyss, who was then proprietor of Mainshill.
 
THE HEPBURNS.
page 260


On the 15th December, Sir William Stewart, the Scottish herald, appeared at the Danish Court, and delivered to Frederick a formal [p.260] demand from the Regent Moray for the surrender of Darnley's murderer. In this emergency the Earl proved himself, as Peter Oxe, the High Steward, and John Früs, one of the Danish councillors, described him, in a document which still exists, 'very cunning and inventive.' He affirmed that he had come to Denmark to 'declare the cause of the Queen of Scotland, his royal Majesty's kinswoman, and to desire his Majesty's good counsel and assistance for her deliverance, as from the lord and prince on whom, both on account of kinship and descent, as also on account of the ancient alliance which has been between both kingdoms from time immemorial, she altogether relies.' He pleaded that 'he had already in Scotland been legally acquitted of this charge, that he was himself the real regent of Scotland, that the Queen was his consort, and that his opponents were only rebels.' He addressed letters to Charles IX. of France, declaring that he had left Scotland 'to lay before the Danish king the wrongs to which his near relative, the Queen of Scotland, had become a victim,' and entreated the French king 'favourably to take into account the goodwill with which through his whole life he had striven, and would further strive, to be of service to him.' He also solicited, and, it would appear succeeded, in securing the interposition in his behalf of Charles Dancay, the French ambassador at the Court of Denmark. In the end, Frederick declined to surrender Bothwell, but offered permission to the Scottish envoy himself to prosecute the Earl in Denmark, for the crimes laid to his charge—a course, however, which Sir William Stewart did not think it expedient at that time to adopt. Meanwhile, orders were given by the King that Bothwell should be removed from Copenhagen to the castle of Malmoe, where he was confined in a large oblong vaulted hall, strongly secured with iron-barred windows, which still exist. During his residence in the castle of Copenhagen Bothwell composed a detailed memoir of the transactions in Scotland that had led to the dethronement of the Queen and his own banishment, which is throughout a tissue of the most extraordinary falsehoods, denying all participation on his own part in the murder of Darnley, and ascribing that deed to Moray and the other Protestant lords.
 
THE HEPBURNS.
page 264


The title of Earl of Bothwell was conferred by James VI., 29th July, 1576, on FRANCIS STEWART,eldest son of John Stewart, Prior [p.264] of Coldingham, natural son of James V. by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Carmichael. The Prior obtained legitimation under the Great Seal, 7th February, 1551, and married, in 1562, Lady Jane Hepburn, daughter of Patrick, third Earl of Bothwell, and sister of the murderer of Darnley. It was no doubt owing to his near relationship to the Hepburns through his mother, that their forfeited titles were conferred upon him, along with a considerable portion of their estates. He was also appointed Lord High Admiral of Scotland, Sheriff-Principal of the county of Edinburgh, and within the constabulary of Haddington, and Sheriff of the county of Berwick, and Bailiary of Lauderdale.
 
THE HEPBURNS.
page 265


From his early years Francis Stewart was noted for his restless and turbulent disposition. He took part against the Earl of Arran, the royal favourite, and quarrelled with Sir William Stewart, Arran's brother, whom he killed in a fray which took place in Blackfriars Wynd, in Edinburgh, on the 30th July, 1588. In that same year he assisted the Popish Earls of Huntly, Errol, and Angus, in their rebellion, and was imprisoned in Tantallon Castle; but after a few months' confinement he was released on payment of a fine to the Crown. In 1589, when James went to Denmark in quest of his betrothed bride, he appointed Bothwell one of the administrators of the kingdom during his absence, in the hope of conciliating him by this mark of distinction. But on the return of the King the Earl returned to his former practices. In January, 1591, a number of wretched creatures were brought to trial and burned on a charge of witchcraft, and twoof them declared that Bothwell had consulted them in order to know the time of the King's death, and that at his instigation they had raised the storm which had endangered the lives of James and his queen, on their voyage homeward from Denmark. The Earl surrendered himself a prisoner in the castle of Edinburgh, to meet these charges, insisting that 'the devil, wha was a lyer from the beginning, nor yet his sworn witches, ought not to be credited.' But after remaining three weeks in prison he became impatient of restraint, and on the 22nd of June, 1591, he effected his escape from the castle, and fled to the Borders. The King on this proclaimed him a traitor, and forbade, under the penalties of treason, any one to 'reset, supply, show favour, intercommune, or have intelligence with him.' Bothwell, no way intimidated by this procedure, returned secretly to Edinburgh with a body of his retainers, and on the evening of December 27th, furtively obtained admission to the inner court of Holyrood. An alarm was  given, and the King, who was then at supper, rushed down a back-stair leading to one of the turrets, in which he took refuge. Spottiswood lauds the firm deportment of the King when Bothwell was thundering at the door ofthe Queen's apartment. But Birrel describes the King's majesty as 'flying down the backstairs with his breeches in his hand' (Birrel, p. 30). 'Such is the difference,' says Sir Walter Scott, 'betwixt the narrative of the courtly archbishop and that of the Presbyterian burgess of Edinburgh.' This scene seems to have been regarded by Sir Walter with great amusement. In the 'Fortunes of Nigel' he represents Richie Moniplies as describing the array of King James when his majesty was about to go out to hunt, or hawk, on Blackheath. 'A bonny grey horse, the saddle, and the stirrups, and the curb, and the bit o' gowd, or silver gilded at least; the King, with all his nobles, dressed out in his hunting-suit of green, doubly laced and laid down with gowd. My certy, lad, thought I,' adds Richie, 'times are changed since ye came fleeing down the backstairs of auld Holyrood House in grit fear, having your breeks in your hand, without time to put them on, and Frank Stewart, the wild Earl of Bothwell, hard at your haunches.'* The attendants barred and barricaded the door of the Queen's apartment, which Bothwell attempted to force open. Meanwhile notice of this attack was sent to the Provost of the city, who hastily collected a band of armed citizens, with whom he entered the palace by a private door leading to the royal chapel, and compelled Bothwell and his followers to take to flight. Nine of them were captured, and without a trial were hanged next morning, on a new gallows erected opposite the palace gate for the purpose.
 
THE FRASERS OF LOVAT.
page 268


The trial accordingly took place on the 10th of August, and lasted for nine hours. It ended in Bothwell's complete acquittal, and was immediately followed by full remission of all his 'by-gone offences done to his Majesty and his authority, preceding this day, never to be quarrelled hereafter.' A proclamation was also issued by the King, charging the lieges that none of them 'tak upon hand to slander, murmur, reproach, or backbite the said Earl and his friends.' James, however, had no intention of keeping the agreement which he had made with his factious subject, and Bothwell was informed that if he would renounce the conditions extorted by force from the King, being a breach of the royal prerogative, a remission would be granted for his past offences, but that he must forthwith retire out of the kingdom, and 'remain forth of the same,' during his Majesty's pleasure. Lord Home and Bothwell's other enemies were at the same time permitted to return to Court, from which his friends were expelled. He was served with a summons to appear before the King and Council on the 25th October, 1593, to answer sundry charges of high treason, and, having failed to appear, he was denounced a rebel, and put to the horn. Incensed at these proceedings, Bothwell levied a body of five hundred moss-troopers, and marched to the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. James went out to meet him at the head of a numerous but undisciplined body of the citizens, and drew them up on the Boroughmuir. He had previously despatched Lord Home with a body of cavalry to attack Bothwell, but they were no match for the warlike Borderers, and were quickly put to the rout. As soon as the King saw the fugitives approaching, he fled upon the gallop back to the city. Bothwell however, in his eager pursuit of the defeated troops, was thrown from his horse, and so severely injured that he retired to Dalkeith, where he passed the night. Next morning he dismissed his followers, and once more sought security on the English side of the Border. Elizabeth, however, had by this time discovered that he could no longer be of service to her, and expelled him from the country. Sentence of excommunication was pronounced against him by the Church, which rendered him liable to the highest civil penalties. He was driven from all his castles and places of [p.268] shelter, and was chased from one quarter of the country to another. At length, after being keenlypursued through the county of Caithness, where he made several hairbreadth escapes, he found means of retiring to France. He then wandered into Spain, and afterwards passed into Italy, where he renounced the Protestant faith. He there led a life of obscurity and indigence, earning a wretched subsistence by the exhibition of feats of arms, fortune-telling, and necromancy. He died at Naples in 1612, in great misery. The forfeited estates of Bothwell were divided among Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch, his stepson, Ker of Cessford, and Lord Home. The forfeited titles of the Earl were never recovered, but the greater part of his extensive estates were restored by Charles I. to Francis Stewart, his eldest son, who married Lady Isabella Seton, only daughter of Robert, first Earl of Winton, and ultimately sold his paternal estates to the Winton family. He left a son and a daughter. In Creichton's 'Memoirs' it is stated that Francis Stewart, the grandson of the Earl of Bothwell, though so nearly related to the royal family, was a private in the Scottish Horse Guards, in the reign of Charles II. This circumstance appears to have suggested to Sir Walter Scott the character of Sergeant Bothwell in 'Old Mortality.' John Stewart, the second son of the Earl, was the last Commendator of Coldingham, and he got the lands which belonged to that priory formed into a barony in 1621.
 
THE FRASERS OF LOVAT.
page 278


When the Jacobite insurrection of 1715 broke out, Simon set out for Scotland, no doubt with the intention of joining the party that should appear most likely to promote his own interests. He alleges that he was arrested at Newcastle, Longtown, near Carlisle, Dumfries, and Lanark, which would seem to show that his character was generally known, and that his intentions were as generally distrusted. He was allowed, however, in the end to prosecute his journey. On reaching Edinburgh he was instantly apprehended by order of the Lord Justice Clerk, and was about to be imprisoned in the castle, when he was set at liberty through the interposition of the Lord Provost of the city. He made his way by sea from Leith to Inverness-shire, and found that Mackenzie of Fraserdale had led a body of five hundred men of the Fraser clan to the standard of the Earl of Mar. Three hundred of them, however, had disobeyed his orders and had remained at home, and putting himself at their head, Lovat concerted a plan, with Duncan Forbes of Culloden, for the recovery of Inverness, the capital of the Highlands, which had been garrisoned by Sir John Mackenzie of Coul, with four hundred of his clan. He also sent a message to his clansmen who had joined the rebels, ordering them immediately to quit Lord Mar's camp. Though there is every reason to believe that their own predilections were in favour of the exiled Stewart dynasty, and they were under the command of the husband of the heiress of their late chief, they at once abandoned the Jacobite cause, and set out on their march to place themselves under the command of Simon Fraser, whom they recognised as their rightful chief. Strengthened by this important accession to the force under his command, and by a body of auxiliaries furnished by the Munros, Grants, and Rosses, who had always adhered to the Whig side, Lovat proceeded to carry into effect the plan which Duncan Forbes and he had devised for obtaining possession of Inverness. On their approach the garrison abandoned the town, and dropping down the river in boats, during the night of November 13th, they made their escape to the northern coast of the Moray Firth.
 
THE FRASERS OF LOVAT.
page 281

Lovat, notwithstanding all his professions of loyalty, was at heart [p.281] a Jacobite, and never relinquished the hope of the restoration of the Stewarts. He obtained from the Government the command of one of the independent companies, termed the Black Watch, organised at this time to put down robbery and theft, which afforded him the means, without suspicion, of training his whole clan by turn to military discipline, and the use of arms. Some purchases of arms and ammunition, however, which he made from abroad alarmed the Government respecting his intentions, and his commission was withdrawn in 1737. His indignation at this treatment no doubt contributed to strengthen his alienation from the Hanoverian dynasty. He was the first of the seven influential Jacobite leaders who subscribed the invitation to the Chevalier in 1740; but when Prince Charles arrived, in 1745, without the troops, money, and arms which they had stipulated as the condition of their taking the field in his behalf, the wily old chief showed great hesitation in repairing to his standard. He had been promised a dukedom and the lord-lieutenancy of Inverness-shire, and while the Prince lay at Invergarry, Fraser of Gortuleg, Lovat's confidant, waited upon him and solicited the patents which he had been led to expect, expressing at the same time his great interest in the enterprise, though his age and infirmities prevented him from immediately assembling his clan in its support. The Prince and his advisers were very desirous that Lovat should declare himself in favour of the attempt to replace the Stewart family on the throne, as, besides his own numerous and warlike clan, he had great influence with the M'Phersons, whose chief was his son-in-law, the M'Intoshes, Farquharsons, and other septs in Invernessshire, who were likely to follow the cause which he should adopt. It appears that the original patents subscribed by the Prince's father had been left behind with the heavy baggage, but new deeds were written out and sent by Gortuleg to the selfish and cunning old chief.
 
THE FRASERS OF LOVAT.
page 286


The fugitive Prince and his attendants went on to Invergarry, and Lovat, finding that his vassal's house at Gortuleg was no safe place of refuge, fled to the mountains, though he was so infirm that he had to be carried by his attendants. Not finding himself safe there, he escaped in a boat to an island in Loch Morar. He was discovered by a detachment from the garrison of Fort William, engaged in making descents upon the coasts of Knoidart and Arisaig. In one of these descents they got intelligence respecting the aged chief, and, after three days' search, they found him concealed in a hollow tree with his legs swathed in flannel. He was sent up to London and imprisoned in the Tower. His trial did not take place until the 9th of March, 1747, to afford time to collect evidence sufficient to insure his conviction. No one doubted his complicity in the rebellion. Indeed, on one occasion he said of himself that he had been engaged in every plot for the restoration of the Stewart family since he was fifteen years of age; but as he had cunningly kept in the background, and had abstained from any overt act of treason, he would probably have escaped the punishment which he justly merited had not John Murray of Broughton, secretary to the Prince, purchased his own safety by becoming king's evidence, and producing letters from Lovat to Charles which fully established his guilt. The trial lasted seven days, and though he defended himself with great dexterity, he was found guilty and condemned to be beheaded. When sentence was pronounced upon him he said, 'Farewell, my lords, we shall not all meet again in the same place. I am sure of that.' During the interval between his conviction and his execution he displayed the utmost insensibility to his position, and made his approaching death the subject of frequent jests. He was, notwithstanding, anxious to escape his doom, and wrote a letter to the Duke of Cumberland, pleading the favour in which he had been held by George I., and how he had carried the Duke about when a child in the parks of Kensington and Hampton Court; but, finding that all his applications for life were vain, he resolved, as Sir Walter Scott says, to imitate in his death the animal he most resembled in his life, and die like the fox, without indulging his enemies by the utterance of a sigh or a groan. Though in the eightieth year of his age, and so infirm that he had to obtain the assistance of two warders in mounting the scaffold, his spirits never flagged. Looking round [p.286] upon the multitude assembled on Tower Hill to witness his execution, he said with a sneer, 'God save us Why should there be such a bustle about taking off an old grey head from a man who cannot getup three steps without two assistants?' At this moment, a scaffold crowded with spectators gave way, and Lovat was informed that a number of them had been seriously injured, if not killed. In curious keeping with his character, he remarked in the words of an old Scottish adage, 'The more mischief the better sport.' He professed to die in the Roman Catholic religion, and, after spending a short time in devotion, he repeated the well-known line of Horace, singularly inappropriate to his character and fate:—
 
THE GORDONS.
page 305


In carrying out the policy which she adopted at this stage, Mary chose as her chief counsellor her half-brother, Lord James Stewart, the leader of the Protestant lords, and it transpired that she intended to create him Earl of Moray. Huntly was deeply offended at the favour thus shown to his rival, and especially at the prospect of being deprived of the extensive domains attached to the earldom of Moray, which had for some years been in his possession. His disaffection to the Government was not concealed, and there was reason to believe that he was organising his retainers and allies with a view to take up arms in support of the ancient faith, as soon as a favourable opportunity should present itself.
 
THE GORDONS.
page 319


Huntly had now returned to his own country, but he was very soon involved in fresh troubles and conflicts. In conjunction with the Earls of Angus and Errol, he entered into a treasonable conspiracy to overturn the Protestant religion in Scotland. He was,  in consequence, summoned with great reluctance by the King, to answer to the charge brought against him of conspiring, along with other discontented Popish nobles, against the sovereign. Instead, however, of surrendering to stand his trial, Huntly and his associates took refuge in their northern fastnesses. James, indignant at this disregard of his authority, marched against them (17th February, 1593) at the head of a strong body of troops. But on hearing of his arrival at Aberdeen, Huntly and his fellow-conspirators quitted their strongholds, and fled to the mountains, leaving their wives to present the keys of their castles in token of surrender. James placed garrisons in these strongholds, and followed up these steps by the forfeiture of the Popish lords and the seizure of their land; but this was done in such a way as to justify the remark of Lord Burleigh, that the King only 'dissembled a confiscation.' In the course of a few months he invited the Countess of Huntly to Court, and, it was believed, even consented to hold a secret meeting at Falkland with Huntly himself. The Protestant party vehemently remonstrated against the lenity which James was showing to the men who were conspirators against his throne, as well as against the Protestant faith; but he would proceed no farther against them than to offer that their offences should be 'abolished, delete, and extinct, and remain in oblivion for ever,' provided that they would renounce Popery and embrace the Presbyterian religion. If they refused this offer they were to go into exile. Huntly and the other two Earls declined to avail themselves of these proferred terms, and they entered into a new conspiracy with Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, for the seizure of the King's person. They were in consequence declared guilty of high treason, their estates and honours were forfeited, and a commission was given to the Earl of Argyll to lay waste their territory, and to pursue them with fire and sword. The Earl accordingly marched to the north at the head of a strong body of men, and encountered Huntly at a place called Glenlivet. After a fierce contest Argyll was defeated with considerable loss.  

THE HAYS OF ERROL.
page 376


GILBERT, the tenth Earl, was a staunch Royalist during the troublous times of the Great Civil War, and raised a regiment at his own expense for the service of Charles II. 'We do promise,' wrote that monarch, 'that as soon as it shall please Almighty God to put an end to the present troubles, the claims of our said cousin, the said Earl of Errol, shall be favourably considered and justice done, so that he may see how highly we esteem that ancient family, and the value we set upon his present services.' But, as usual, the promise was not kept by 'the laughter-loving king, whose word no man relied on.' On the death of Earl Gilbert without issue, his titles and estates devolved upon SIR JOHN HAY of Killour, grandson of Sir George Hay, the younger son of the seventh Earl. His son CHARLES, the twelfth Earl, died unmarried in 1717, and the title, with its privileges, and honours, and the remnant of the once-extensive possessions of the family, passed to his elder sister, LADY MARY, the wife of Alexander Falconer, son of Sir David Falconer, Lord President of the Court of Session. At the death of the Countess without issue it was inherited by LORD BOYD, the grandson of his sister, who married James, fifth Earl of Linlithgow and fourth Earl of Callandar, to whom she bore an only child, Lady Anne Livingston, the wife of the Earl of Kilmarnock. Lord Boyd would have united in his own person the earldoms of Errol, Kilmarnock, Linlithgow, and Callandar had the three last not been attainted at the [p.376] close of the Jacobite rebellion of 1745. His father, the amiable but unfortunate Earl of Kilmarnock, when in his twelfth year, had fought for the Hanoverian dynasty in 1715, but changed sides and joined the banner of Prince Charles Stewart in 1745. He had been soured by the illtreatment he had received from the Government in withholding his pension, and was so miserably poor that he was frequently obliged to depend upon the hospitality of his friends for a dinner. His wife, the Countess of Linlithgow and Callandar in her own right, was a lady of great spirit and wit, and she contributed not a little to the success of the Highland army at the battle of Falkirk, by detaining General Hawley at Callandar House until the insurgents had taken up a commanding position on the moor, which enabled them to engage the royal troops at a great advantage.
 
THE HAYS OF TWEEDDALE.
page 384


In the following year (October 8th) the Master of Yester is once more brought before the Council, on acomplaint made by Sir John Stewart of Traquair, and his brother, James Stewart of Shillinglaw, lieutenant of his Majesty's guard. They set forth, in the first place, how it is well known of Sir John Stewart that, 'having his dwelling-place on the south side of Tweed, in a room [place] subject to the invasions of the thieves and broken men of the Borders, and lying betwixt them and sundry his Majesty's true liges, whom commonly they harry and oppress, have at all times himself, his brother, his friends and neighbours assisting him, dwelling betwixt the burgh of Peebles and Gaithopeburn, resistit the stouthreif and oppressions of the said thieves and broken men, to the comfort and relief of many true men, in whilkcourse they intend, God willing, to continue to their lives' end.' Of late, however, they declare 'they have been and is gretumly hindered therein, by reason that William, Master of Yester, by the causing, direction,at least owersight and tolerance, of William Lord Hay of Yester, his father, sheriff of Peebles and provost of the burgh of Peebles (wha by the laws of this realme aucht to mak his said son answerable,' but had 'placit him in the principal house and strength of Neidpath,' though he had been denounced rebel for nearly the space of a year 'for his inobedience to underlie the laws' till within the last few days that he obtained relaxation)…had in the meantime 'not only usurpit, and taken on him the charge of the sheriffship of Peebles, and provostry of the burgh thereof, but ane absolute command to proclaim and hold wappinshawings Meetings of the male inhabitants for the exhibition of their weapons, which they were required by statute to provide.* at times na wise appointit by his hieness' direction, to banish and give upkindness to all persons, in burgh or land, where he pleases, to tak up men's gear under pretence of unlaws fra wappinshawings or other unnecessar causings, never being lawfully callit nor convenit;…and forder it is well knawn to sundry of the lords of Secret Council that the said Master sought the life of the said James Stewart, and daily shores and boasts [threatens and vaunts] to slay him and all others of his kin, friends, allies, assisters, and partakers.' On the petition of the complainers, the Council heard parties, the peccant Master appearing for himself and in excuse for his father, who was sick and unable to travel. The case was remitted to the judgment of the Court of Session, to be decided by them as they might think proper. Meanwhile the Master was enjoined to desist from molesting the Stewarts and their friends and dependents between this and the 8th of January next.
 
THE HAYS OF TWEEDDALE.
page 385


It was shortly after this fruitless effort to heal the feud between the Hays and Stewarts that King James made his memorable attempt to induce the whole nobility, convened for the purpose at Edinburgh, to bury in oblivion their mutual animosities, and to promise that they would henceforth live together in amity. After a banquet at Holyrood, they were made to march in procession hand-in-hand to the Cross of Edinburgh, and there, in the presence of the King and a great concourse of the citizens, to drink to each other, and to pledge their faith that they would be friends. The Master of Yester alone declined to comply with the King's earnest request, and refused to be reconciled to Stewart of Traquair. He was committed to the castle for his contumacy, and after a few months' imprisonment he at last yielded. The whole circumstances connected with this affair throw great light both on the character of the Scottish nobility of that day, and on the lawless state of the country, when the son of a peer of the realm, and the sheriff of the county, robbed the people of their goods under the pretext that they had refused to attend meetings illegally convened by his own authority.

 

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